viernes, 26 de junio de 2009
En vez de verlo como la oportunidad de oro para pasar al otro lado de este infierno os seguíis obcecando en ver la actual situación como el infierno de donde parece que nunca podremos salir.
En resumen, que estamos mucho peor que estos últimos y macabros años.
Con lo que seguíis haciendo un flaco favor a los pocos supervivientes en el pensamiento único.
Es cuestión de sindrome de estocolmo.
Un abrazo crítico y creativo, siempre auto-crítico, con lo que siempre criticamos el coche.
El 24 de junio de 2009 14:25, Web de Jn Ts López
Ganas de escribir
El coste de la crisis en Estados Unidos: sencillamente impresionante
Posted: 23 Jun 2009 06:36 PM PDT
Este gráfico muestra del modo más claro lo que está costando la crisis que provocaron los bancos. Y también nos puede dar una idea de lo que necesariamente costará quitarnos esa carga en los próximos años (ojo: 1 billion= mil millones)
We discovered a new vein of research — the relation between physical and social or psychological concepts — that we came to by taking evolutionary principles seriously and applying them to psychology. We weren't using evolutionary psychology, which has largely been focused on mating and reproduction. Our focus, rather, was in terms of evolutionary biology and the basic principles of natural selection: and that field makes clear that humans must have had these kinds of mechanisms or these processes to guide our behavior prior to evolution or emergence of consciousness.
A Conversation with John A. Bargh
"They say that in science there are complicators and there are simplifiers," says John Bargh, Yale social psychologist known for his early work on the topic of automaticity, and more recently for bringing experimental methodology to the philosophical question of free will.
According to Bargh, the tension between the complicators and the simplifiers is a good thing in any field of ideas or science. "I've always been a simplifier." he says, "looking for the simple mechanisms that produce complex effect, instead of building a complicated model. Once we find one of these veins — one of these avenues of research — we just go for it and mine it and mine it until we run out of gold.
Bargh's lines of research all focus on unconscious mechanisms that underlie social perception, evaluation and preferences, and motivation and goal pursuit in realistic and complex social environments. That each of these basic psychological phenomena occur without the person's intention and awareness, yet have such strong effects on the person's decisions and behavior, has considerable implications for philosophical matters such as free will, and the nature and purpose of consciousness itself.
He maintains that the resulting findings "are very consistent and in harmony with evolutionary biology. And this is very unlike psychology, which has always presumed a kind of consciousness bottle-neck or a self, some kind of a homunculus type of self sitting there, making all the decisions and deciding without any explanation of where they comes from or what's causing the self or what's causing the conscious choices. Emphasizing what our unconscious systems do for us, in turn, links us very strongly to other organisms and other animals very closely. Recent primate research is showing that primates are closer to us than we thought. They fall for the same kind of economic fallacies that Kahneman and Tversky talked about in humans 30 years ago."
— Russell Weinberger
Associate Publisher, Edge
JOHN A. BARGH is professor of social psychology at Yale University and director of the ACME (Automaticity in Cognition, Motivation and Evaluation) Lab.
martes, 16 de junio de 2009
Science News , March 1, 1997 by David Lindley
o My Yahoo
Writing to Niels Bohr in 1935, physicist Erwin Schrodinger lamented his inability to understand a principle that Bohr deemed essential to the interpretation of quantum mechanics: "It must belong to your deepest conviction-and I cannot understand on what you base it," Schrodinger complained.
Bohr's principle concerns the way in which a measurement of a quantum mechanical system-the position of an electron, for example-produces a specific result. Quantum mechanics requires that a system exist in a range of possible states, a superposition, until a measurement is made, at which point one of those states takes on a definite reality. But how?
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To illustrate his perplexity, Schrodinger imagined placing a cat in a closed box, along with an atom that could be in one of two states and a device to measure its state. If the measurement goes one way, the cat stays alive; if it goes the other way, the unfortunate cat dies. The quantum system starts as a superposition of two possible states, Schrodinger noted, but does that mean that the cat is simultaneously dead and alive? If not, what is it about a cat that requires it to be dead or alive rather than some unimaginable combination of the two?
Last year, scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colo., created a small-scale scenario resembling the box with the fanciful cat. They trapped a single atom in such a way that it could occupy either of two distinct states. Then, using lasers, they nudged the two states in opposite directions, physically separating the two halves of the superposition.
Great precision was needed to maintain coherence between the separated states. Even the tiniest disturbance could have upset the system, forcing the atom to take up a definite position in one place or the other. Theoretical investigations in recent years suggest that the delicacy of such states holds an explanation for why atomic superpositions-let alone superpositions of cats-are not normally seen.
The atoms of a real purring, yowling, or napping cat constantly jiggle around, preventing a quantum mechanically coherent state from encompassing the entire animal, except perhaps for an instant. Moreover, the aliveness or deadness of a cat are qualities that have durable meaning, even though the cat's internal quantum disposition is in a perpetual state of flux.
These insights have been mathematically refined to form the basis of a physical process called decoherence. According to its proponents, decoherence confers long-term stability only on those properties of a macroscopic system that correspond to what an observer would recognize. A cat, in other words, remains dead or alive long enough for that state to be recorded; a superposed dead-and-alive cat, however, can never exist long enough to be noticed.
In a broad way, says Wojciech H. Zurek of Los Alamos (N.M.) National Laboratory, decoherence vindicates Bohr's "brilliant stroke of reasoning" in concluding that measurement-an act of noticing-must somehow impose stability on quantum systems. Bohr may not have altogether liked the idea of decoherence, adds Zurek, because it fails to provide the absolute definition of classical behavior that Bohr would have wanted. As last year's NIST experiment shows, single atoms can sometimes behave in a quantum mechanical way, as well as in the classical style that most experiments portray.
Not everyone agrees that these new ideas resolve Schrodinger's long-standing perplexity. Decoherence may explain why observable states are classical states, but it nevertheless leaves open a range of possibilities. "It says you'll never get any wrong answers, but it still doesn't say how you get an answer at all," contends Anthony J. Leggett of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Leggett believes that as experimenters construct increasingly large quantum mechanically coherent systems, they may find discrepancies indicating flaws in quantum mechanics itself.
Zurek responds that arguments over the value of decoherence may result in part from disagreement as to what questions physics should ultimately answer. Applied to the universe as a whole, decoherence limits the possible cosmic histories, or series of events constituting the universe's evolution, to those consistent with the laws of classical physics. This screening may not be useful, he says, for anyone who wants to know why the universe is the way it is, but it may be comforting to know that the universe we perceive is explicable by the laws of physics.
Quandaries of this sort arise largely because of the dichotomy between intuitive thinking and the way quantum mechanics works, says Andreas J. Albrecht of Imperial College in London, "but I have yet to see that amazement translated into practical questions." He suggests that speculation about quantum computers-much discussed but so far unrealized-can usefully illuminate the inner workings of quantum mechanics.
The bits of a quantum computer would be superpositions of quantum states rather than strictly defined binary states. A computation proceeds as an interaction of superposed states, yielding an answer in response to a measurement. Although quantum computers remain "far-fetched" for now, says Albrecht, understanding how they would work is tantamount to understanding how classical properties emerge from quantum systems.
Ultimately, the practical and cosmic questions may be one and the same. After all, Albrecht observes, the entire universe is fundamentally a quantum computer, and we ourselves are among the products of its computation.
Bibliography for: "Quantum mechanics gets real - future quantum mechanics theory and research - 75th Anniversary Supplement"
David Lindley "Quantum mechanics gets real - future quantum mechanics theory and research - 75th Anniversary Supplement". Science News. FindArticles.com. 16 Jun, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n9_v151/ai_19217901/
View more issues:
Articles in March 1, 1997 issue of Science News
* Vitamin E helps - but don't overdose - antioxidants in male smokers and nonsmokers - Biochemistry - Brief Article
* Satellite makes solar wind count - Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite measurements of heavy elements in solar wind - Physics - Brief Article
by Corinne Wu
* Potent toxin complicates heart repair - IgM EndoCAb concentration in blood liked to risk of heart surgery complications - Brief Article
by Steve Sternberg
* Ewe again? Cloning from adult DNA - cloning sheep
by John Travis
* 51 Pegasi: a star without a planet? - a planet may not orbit the star as previously believed - Brief Article
by Ron Cowen
* Mud time line clarifies dinosaurs' demise - mud core supports theory that comet or meteor caused mass extinctions at the end of Cretaceous period - Brief Article
by Paul Smaglik
* Clockwork sex of coral reef algae - sexual reproduction among algae - Brief Article
by Christine Mlot
* Paternal smokers' cancer legacy - cancer risk among children of smoking fathers - Biochemistry - Brief Article
by Janet Raloff
* Earths beyond Earth - search for extraterrestrial life - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Ron Cowen
* Biology's periodic table - Human Genome Projects - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by John Travis
* Letter from the editor - 'Science News' - 75th Anniversary Supplement - Editorial
by Julie Ann Miller
* A taxonomy of images - science photograph exhibition, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution; Washington, D.C - 75th Anniversary Supplement - Brief Article
* Letter from the publisher - 'Science News' reaffirms its purpose to further the understanding of science among nonscientists - 75th Anniversary Supplement - Brief Article
by Thomas Bennett Bennett
* Atoms as the smallest quantum bits - proposal for using single atoms as bits in quantum computer - Physics - Brief Article
by Corinna Wu
* Nanotech: bigger isn't better - nanotechnology of the future - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Corinna Wu
* Fractal past, fractal future - fractal research of the past and future - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Ivars Peterson
* Minds meet in social whirl - future of psychology research - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Bruce Bower
* From news wire to news weekly: 75 years of Science Service - 'Science News' history - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Anna Maria Gillis
* Dr. Seekers' future imperfect: a sneak preview at what science will really look like in 25 years - humor - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Bruce Bower
* Poesy - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Rebecca Carlsen
* A reflection while shaving on the finite speed of light - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Graham Walker
* They tell me a protein - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by James R. Villiesse
* A symbol song - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Don Singalewitch
* Limerick - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by David Goldstein
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by G.P. Winship, Jr.
* Redeeming time - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Bill Stifler
* Encounter - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Laurence Levine
* Pinecones - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Judy White
* The Rockies - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Ernest A. Peterson
* Colorado stratification - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Ernest A. Peterson
* Paloma tomb - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Robert A. Benfer, Jr.
* Down's Syndrome settling Heather - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Mary Ann Chapman
* Quantum mechanics gets real - future quantum mechanics theory and research - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by David Lindley
* Future health, future choices - bioethics of the future - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Kathleen Fackelmann
* The call of catastrophes - influence of mass extinction theory on future science - 75th Anniversary Supplement
by Richard Monastersy
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by Janet Raloff
* How things are: a suite for Lucretians - excerpt - poem - 75th Anniversary Supplement
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John Watrous: Zero Knowledge In Our Quantum Future
Strangely enough for an academic, Professor John Watrous envisions a world in which we know less about one another, not more. His research into the theory of zero-knowledge quantum cryptographic protocols holds the tantalizing promise of keeping two parties in perfect ignorance about one another, otherwise known as privacy.
Recently lured to Waterloo from the University of Calgary, where he held a Canada Research Chair in Quantum Computing, Professor Watrous states his reason for being here plainly: “The quantum computing effort that's happening here is like no other program in the world. It's a large collection of some of the best people in the world working intensively on quantum computing. Being a part of that is very compelling.”
Professor Watrous is a member of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, and has previously worked with IQC members Richard Cleve, Andris Ambainis, and Ashwin Nayak. He hopes to begin collaborating with other UW faculty members in the near future.
An affiliate member at The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Professor Watrous goes there regularly to participate in seminars and discussions, and to work with collaborators including Daniel Gottesman.
Professor Watrous’s research centers on the emerging field of quantum information science, specifically the theory of quantum information and its applications to algorithms, complexity theory, and cryptography. He became interested in the strange, sometimes bizarre quantum world when, as a doctoral student studying computational number theory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison under Eric Bach, he learned about Shor's Algorithm for integer factoring on a quantum computer. In 1994 Peter Shor, a computer scientist at AT&T Labs, proved that a quantum computer would be capable of efficiently finding the factors of very large numbers—ones with several hundred digits for instance—which is a task believed to be intractable for ordinary computers. The discovery caused great excitement in computer science, and sent shockwaves throughout defense establishments worldwide, who realized that standard cryptographic schemes could be broken by quantum computers. Watrous began investigating quantum theory, and ran with it, with his supervisor's blessing.
After graduating in 1998, Watrous spent a postdoctoral year at the Laboratoire d'Informatique Theorique et Quantique at the Universite de Montreal. In 1999, he joined the faculty at the University of Calgary, where he held a Canada Research Chair in Quantum Computing. He has rapidly made a name for himself as one of the world's preeminent quantum computing theorists, and is a member of several of Canada's key quantum research groups. In addition to his memberships at the Institute for Quantum Computing and the Perimeter Institute, he is a Scholar in the Quantum Information Processing Group in the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. Professor Watrous joined Waterloo's School of Computer Science in July, 2006.
According to quantum theory, learning information from a piece of quantum data inherently changes it. Furthermore, separated yet “entangled” particles exhibit useful correlations over vast distances. These characteristics have proved extremely useful for cryptographic purposes. Quantum cryptography guarantees secure communications since any attempt to intercept a package (say, of photons) sent between two users will disturb their quantum state and thus expose the observer. While practical quantum computers are a relatively distant goal, quantum cryptography can be implemented over short distances using today's technology, offering a far higher level of data security than is available using ordinary computers.
Much of Professor Watrous's recent work has focused on the theory of quantum cryptography. “Part of quantum cryptography deals with how quantum computers will affect different aspects of classical cryptography. For example, it is important to understand which cryptographic systems are safe against attacks by quantum computers and which are not. For practical reasons, the ideal situation is one where ordinary people who don't have quantum computers can still use cryptography that is secure against quantum computers.”
Indeed this is not the current situation, due to the fact that cryptosystems that are used in practice can be defeated with quantum computers using Shor's Algorithm. “Right now, when you order books from Amazon.com, say, your credit card number is encrypted, but if someone had a quantum computer, they could easily decrypt it and steal your credit card number.”
Recently, Professor Watrous did intriguing work relating to zero-knowledge, a key goal in both classical and quantum cryptography. In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is an interactive method for one party to prove to another that a (usually mathematical) statement is true, without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement. For example, one application is to implement a cryptographic system in which two people can interact, and one comes away convinced of the other person's identity, but nothing more, and therefore cannot steal it.
Although zero-knowledge has been studied in the classical realm for over 20 years, and many interesting zero-knowledge protocols have been proposed and proved secure against attacks by classical computers, there was been a major problem in merging this theory with quantum information. In fact, none of these protocols could be proved secure against attacks by quantum computers. That changed about a year ago when Professor Watrous developed a new technique for addressing this problem, and in the process proved that many of the known zero-knowledge protocols indeed are secure even against quantum computer attacks.
“For a long time we really didn't know which way it would go... it was conceivable that quantum information would simply forbid zero-knowledge protocols from existing in a quantum world. That turns out to be false, and now we can show that a wide range of zero-knowledge protocols are secure against quantum computer attacks. This is good news, in a practical sense, because ordinary people who don't have quantum computers still need to use cryptography—so at least in the case of zero-knowledge we know it is possible to do this in a way that would be secure even if a few people did have quantum computers.”
When he is not envisioning the nature of a perfectly paranoid brave new quantum world, Watrous occasionally toys with more prosaic alternate realities. “I have two young kids, so it's not like I'm really enjoying the nightlife much...” In addition to playing with his children, he likes to read and occasionally enjoys a good computer game.
2007 Jan 28
David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
Tel: 519-888-4567 x33293
sábado, 13 de junio de 2009
(maybe this is not an open info)
In system thinking we move across embodied systems. All systems are interdependent Holons.
I visited TERENA Congress en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Málaga and made some personal contacts. I thought to prepare a small report to disseminate there. Here there are these ideas...
Reality is a net of networks. Systemic thinking has aided very much to understand the interrelationships in this world at any level. In fact today systemic theories and discoveries have reached the critical mass for the long-hoped restructuring of knowledge and discipline system.
Today the problem is not to build more and more (systemic) theories. The only systemic actual problem is to be aware that the strong development of systemic theories within the multiparticulate disciplines, or scientific fields of knowledge, has already reached the critical mass for a systemic understanding of 21 century science.
We chose here an example of the kind of integration process we make for a systemic transdisciplinary comprehension.
We have three "paradises":
1) The Classroom for sessions of Terena Congress in Facultad de Derecho
2) The Hall of Facultad de Derecho
3) The Outdoor Space going out from Facultad de Derecho
1) In the first case, in the Classroom, people is aware of the networks, because they are working in telematic networks, and in this classroom all speakers were talking and sharing explicitedly their knowledge about networks.
2) The coffee-breaks imply a second level of networking. Participants are coming to the wide hall of Facultad de Derecho, where social (body-to-body) interrelationships mark another kind of networking: Body-to-Body Social Networking.
3) Finally, crossing the main door we reach an open space: Ootdoors. The Campus de Teatinos of Universidad de Málaga is situated in the Guadalhorce Basin. We observe a very wide landscape. The Sea beyond the city, and different mountains, as Cerro s. Antón (to south-east) and Sierra de las Nieves (to north-west).
From 1) to 3) the complexity is increasing. In the Classroom silence of most of participants is a need to understand the issues. In the Hall people can talk among themselves, as a good complement for their knowledge in networking. Outdoors, cars and birds compose the main sounds yo can heard.
Of course Terena Congress participants work mainly in telematic networking. But they also participate in other network systems. They participate in the social (body-to-body) network, and in the Sensosphere network. These two implicit levels of network interaction are present in the everiday life of our participants. The point here is to be aware of our human networking capabilities beyond the telematic network.
We are humans. Humans are animals. Humans are Mammals characterised by the powerful development of their sensorial systems. For this reason, the need of complementarity among the diferent set of networks, must take in account that telematic networks are only a piece of the game.
In telematic networking you also use your sensorial systems. Of course. But our sensorial systems are a powerfull tool that need to be included in all our models about networking. Our proposal is to distinguish among these three systems ("paradise"), because people working in telematic networks, if they want to take in account our characteristics as Humans, they must take in account the other levels of communication.
Sensosphere is a multidimensional network where you live 24 hrs a day. Sensosphere is the "Ocean" from where you and me, almost unconsciously, take all kind of information through our sensorial systems. Sensosphere implicitedly include all three levels of networking. Sensosphere not only cover telematic networks, but also the social (body-to-body) networks, and all the information from ecosystem.
Recently we discovered that "Brain" and "Ecosystem" are as two Islands very far one of another. Why? Because in our culture, dominated by abstraction and believes, and by the "static" body, the great increase in specialization have produced that this two "pieces" of the story were mutualy excluded in scientific research.
Many scientists study the Brain. Many scientists study Ecosystems. But it appears that there are little attention to the interrelationships between Brain and Ecosystem.
If we note that the connection between Brain and Ecosystem is through our rich sensorial systems, that would means that sensorial systems, al least in an integrated way, has been poorly studied until now. Maybe because their complexity.
But the actual premise is that you survive because you, yourself, as a complex sensorial system, manage eficiently your interrelationships with Ecosystem. The point is to be aware, you as sensorial animal, independently of your career, of all this complex sensorial system that you manage eficiently.
We think the first step is to be aware. Our Sensorial System connect every instant of our lifes all the information from ecosystem through your own Body and Brain.
The complex system we are dealing with is composed, thus, by The Ecosystem, The Body and The Brain.
To speak of Brain without connecting it with Body And Ecosystem, is perhaps The Biggest Denial of Nowadays Science.
May be is good to consider three levels:
1) You as (your career)
2) You as Human
3) You as a Multidimensional Sensorial System.
In this way, people dedicated to telematic networking, for example, will be more aware of this "losing bridge", and will make, in interdisciplinary cooperation, that telematic networking will be a network more useful everyday to people, as Mammals integrated in these three paradises together.
After to have seen the strong advancement of Information and Communication Technologies, we wonders when the symbiosis between all these "explicit technologies" and "implicit-sensorial" ones will be greater...
The point is the Community, as a bio-eco-social system.
Mathematical paradoxes as pathways into beliefs and polymathy: an experimental inquiry
|(1)||Department of Mathematics, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA|
Accepted: 28 June 2008 Published online: 29 July 2008
Keywords Beliefs - Interdisciplinarity - Paradoxes - Pre-service teacher education - Polymathy - Russell’s paradox
viernes, 12 de junio de 2009
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YouTube - Eva Ayllon - Mal paso
3 min 49 s
te quiero mal
|malu||malta||mal aliento||niñas mal|
|mal humor||petit mal||mal caracter||mal genio|