jueves, 5 de noviembre de 2009

SymBioDiversity Article in "English"

This is an automatic translation of wapedia version abut symbiodiversity...

This wapedia version comes from wikipedia, where a short version from the primordial symbiodiversity article were put some year ago..

We hope to translate to english the complete version of this seminal symbiodversity article...

Maybe some of you readers want to make it in the meanswhile?

1. Summary
2. Biology of the dawn
3. Of the endosimbiosis to the simbio-diversity
4. Sim-see-diversity: a game of words that gives much game 5. Contributions to the sim-see-diversity
6. Ecology and environment
7. Ecological economy
8. Global education
9. Blurred logic
10. Systematics and the systemic thing
11. Transdisciplinariedad
12. To returns with the concept
13. Bibliographical references

1. Summary

The simbiodiversidad arises from Biology and it is outlined here as a form to approximate us of dynamic way to the complexity of the life systems, of Gaia to the first bacterium, including of very explicit way to the human animal. The human cultures are, they are nourished of, and they feed the biodiversity. Therefore, which we propose is simply to approach us the biodiversity, of existential way, from our daily life: this is the simbiodiversidad.
2. Biology of the dawn

Why the dawn is so magician in so many cultures? What happens when the first rays of the sun illuminate a green landscape? At this moment a process of true alchemy begins in which the myriad of chloroplasts lodged in the vegetal cells resumes the elaboration of the organic matter from the light: the photosynthesis. An authentic swarm of activity begins therefore that is the source of the sustenance for the multiple creatures of the ecosystem. Doubtlessly, the importance of this moment of photosynthetic explosion has had to be recorded in the organisms throughout the history of the life. The dawn agrees with the explosion of the songs of the birds and the beginning of activity for the majority of the species. In the human cultures this importance is reflected in the importance that in the cycles of the life grants to the rising sun. In the modern cultures it agrees with the massive beginning of the diurnal activity. I can not be conscious of that importance, in any case my alive part yes is it, in its memory, Then, participant the key in this cyclical ritual, are the chloroplasts, true photosynthetic bacteria that by means of the endosimbiosis got up themselves, next to other bacteria, in the formation of the vegetal cell.
3. Of the endosimbiosis to the simbio-diversity

One more and more knows the enormous relevance the symbiosis in the evolution and formation of the alive systems, in its two slopes:

1. like endosimbiogénesis: the evolutionary origin of new types of cells

and organisms by the endosimbiosis process (all the cells and organisms eucariotas; Margulis, 2002) and

1. the symbiosis like permanent association between different organisms of species or

of the type parasitism, mutualistic symbiosis or comensalismo (each animal has simbionte at least)

Fig.1. Mixotricha paradoxa is a protoctista

simbionte of the intestine of the thermites that, as well, contains three types of bacteria simbiontes, in the cytoplasm (b) that metabolizan the cellulose ingested by the protoctista (m) and other two very numerous types that, when moving united to the cellular membrane push, it forwards. F: flagella, N: nucleus

From Margulis (2003). The simbio-diversity idea emerges to stress and to extend the relevance of these symbiotic processes for the understanding of the biodiversity and the life in all dimensions, after one long time dominated mainly by the Neodarwinismo, where these processes had been considered of little relevance.
4. Sim-see-diversity: a game of words that gives much game

Next to that more intuitive basic idea and of simbio-diversity, like symbiosis diversity, the idea of sim-biodiversity, more integrating reach is generated. when including the set of all the diversity of the life in the time and the space, from the first bacterium to Gaia, in all relations and manifestations, without distinction, is natural, social or cultural. Objective therefore of the sim-biodiversity is to apprehend and to stress the intense relations that flow and feed mutually:

* the 1) biological diversity, or biodiversity in strict sense and
* 2) the cultural diversity, that is the diversity of ways that we have the animal

humans to relate to us to the other components of the plot of the life.

Fig 3. The physical world influences in the biological world and this one in the world

antroposocial. As well by means of recursivos curls, these influence respectively in the other two. We can distinguish them but not separate them (Morin, 1984).

For it we needed to become familiar with the biodiversity, by means of an approach from our daily life, when verifying as the culture of the day to day is nourished totally of biodiversity. The sim-biodiversity is an invitation to participate in the cyclical dance of the life, is a simple approach to the biodiversity, transversalizar it, surpassing the borders of Biology and generating therefore an interest more general. It arises like a cross-sectional one between multiple fields of knowledge. And with a strong didactic perspective to focus from our daily life. We are life, conscious and unconsciously, we are simbiodiversidad. We do not forget that the main dimension of the simbiodiversidad is the existential one. If we tried to include/understand and to feel a little plus the plot of the life, is mainly for enjoying it, feeling us part of her.

5. Contributions to the sim-see-diversity

Expositions coming from different fields take shelter here that feed the idea on simbiodiversidad:
5. 1. Multicultural science

In the Sixties Levi Strauss (in Knudtson and Suzuki, 1993) it describes the visions of the chamanismo and western modern science, like two parallel ways to acquire knowledge. In both ways of thought, the nature is accessible to a scientific investigation and no of the two forms can consider superior or inferior to the other. Sandra Harding (1996), surpassing the eurocentrismo, analyzes [[history of science]] in different cultures and the different possibilities from relation with western modern science. Surpassing dichotomies a relation clearer between the cultural diversity and science, being due to consider to western modern science and its technologies associated like part of a culture settles down therefore one more. Therefore the simbidiversidad like idea that also arises in the western modern culture comprises of the cultural diversity. Also, that idea, like any other idea or concept (p.ej universal), also is biological diversity or biodiversity, since he has been " parida" by animal, that we are not more than other components of the alive systems.
5. 2. Complexity

The complexity arises like posnormal science, or nonclassic science, when not being able to recognize the objects of study like absolute and independent realities of the subject, in a context of uncertainty and indeterminismo. Thus the organisms and ecosystems, cannot be studied by the paradigm of classic science, since they are abiertos, irreversible and indeterministas. Such systems are in continuous process of energy loss towards the external systems. This flow of energy feeds the processes on autoorganización or autopoiesis (of the Greek, like poetry: autocreación). The organisms, ecosystems and Gaia are autopoiéticos systems. The complex thought, for Edgar Morin (1994), consists of saving of the alternative between the reducing thought, that does not see more than the elements, and the globalista thought, that does not see more than the whole. It includes three principles: the 1) dialógico principle, that connects antagonistic ideas to each other: …” the opposite of a deep truth is another deep truth” (Bohr, in Morin, 1994); 2) the principle of organizational recursion (the curls) that to the refeeding adds to the autorganización or autopoiesis). and 3) the hologramático principle, to absolutely describe the reflection in the part and vice versa.
6. Ecology and environment

Between the objectives of the holistas and complex approaches, it is the overcoming of the dichotomies natural/social, person/nature or society/environment. With that vocation the human ecology and the ecological economy have arisen (Martinez-Alier, 1992), the agroecología and the ecology of the landscape (Naveh and Lieberman, 1984). The ecosystem and ecology concept is between the great contributions of the science of century XX. From Lindeman, in 1942 (Collinson, 1988 p.61) one has seen more and more evident that organisms and means are so intimately interlaced that they form a true unit. This approach holista constitutes the most revolutionary aspect of the ecology, and still he is absent in many expositions and vindications.

Fig.4. The ecology like dance that realises descomponedores, producers and

consumers for the four elements: water, fire, earth and air. According to Peters (1991 p.87), the environment concept is very vague; actually it is identified stipulating what it is not, it is what it is not the investigation object, and thus finishes adopting any meaning that interests to us. For that reason Naveh and Lieberman (1984) propose a ecosistémica education, like alternative to the sweetened environmental education.

7. Ecological economy

The ecological economy, unlike the conventional or neoclassic economy:

* a) considers the economy like a subsystem within the ecological system,
* b) does not accept

a valuation or absolute monetarización of the costs,

* c) internaliza, that is to say,

it considers within his system, the calls externalities (p.ej the contamination to the “outside” of a factory) and

* d) contemplates in its expositions the distribution of

wealth and the future generations (Martinez-Alier, 1992).
8. Global education

The four dimensions of the global education are: the space one, the weather, thematic, that a cross-sectional vision between subjects and disciplines implies, and the internal or personal dimension, that the subject includes, and its emotions. In course 2002/03, the works of simbiodiversidad have paid special attention to this personal dimension, involving in the investigation the familiar cultural diversity and the biodiversity of their surroundings at the prenatal time, basing us on the experience of Australian native towns (Abram, 2001). Fig 5. The global education, (Selby, 1996), allows us to play with four interrelated dimensions: space, temporary, the thematic dimension and the internal or personal dimension. Between the objectives of the global education it is the acquisition of: a) brings back to consciousness systemic of world b) brings back to consciousness of perspective c) brings back to consciousness of the health of planet d) brings back to consciousness of the participation and the preparation and e) the valuation of the process (Selby, 1996). The global education tries to surpass the mechanist and reducing approach, adding elements of holismo and the complexity. And it is a good alternative before the multiplication of cross-sectional areas.
9. Blurred logic

The blurred logic solves finally the old paradox of Zenón that still marked mathematical the modern one, increasing the cover of the aristotelian or binary logic and including to the flexible forms of the daily thought (Kosko, 1995).

10. Systematics and the systemic thing

Throughout history both approaches, the one of systematics and the systemic thing have coexisted, although generally one has had more superiority than another one. From old the humans they have classified the alive beings. Aristotle is very mentioned in the history of the classifications. With Linnaeus one arrives at a typological classification, nominalista, preevolutionary and fijista (species all created at the same time). With Cuvier, Lamarck and the pair Wallace and Darwin he is introduced the evolution idea and arise the divisive classifications in tree, where the branches always are separated in dichotomies. In the neodarwinismo the relations of competition against those of symbiosis prioritize (the theories of Koprotkin had less echo). Still in the XIX, the ecology concept arises with Henry David Thoreau, more developed and known from Ernst Haeckel. The ecology, like systemic field, emphasizes the horizontal relations, inside and towards outside, of the alive systems. In the Eighties the concept arose from biodiversity, like integrating and claiming idea to denounce the destruction of the life systems. Gradually the relevance of the symbiosis in the evolution of the life has been shown (Margulis and Sagan, 1996). The simbiogénesis (to see more above) implies that the evolutionary trees not only are divided in new branches but these also are based with other lateral branches, giving rise to new types of organisms by autopoiesis (Maturana and Varela, 1990). Two complementary approaches are thus towards the alive systems, the systematic approach and the systemic approach. The simbiodiversidad implies an approach between both approaches.
11. Transdisciplinariedad

In the West, the first philosophers were naturalists and the questions were freer; later the knowledge between the physicist and metaphysician is parceled out. With compartment more and more small, it is lost successively more freedom (“intellectual captives”: there is more effectiveness in the answers but it is atrophied the imaginative capacity). With the superdifferentiation the oversimplification arrives, but soon it goes to arise the necessity from communication with other areas and the appearance of new disciplines. The following step implies integration in multidisciplinary equipment. Finally the transdisciplinarios groups return to eet again with the old philosopher and his free questions. In words of Esteban Rodriguez Cairo: “He is himself university when he is himself transdisciplinario”…” perhaps it is the testimony greater than student can be given /la” (Rodriguez, 1992). Transdisciplinariedad is because to flow through different perspective, forms to think and to feel the world that other disciplines, other people, other groups have, other towns and why no? other great and small organisms. The simbiodiversidad is to transdiciplinar.
12. To returns with the concept

Nietsche says to us: “in the same way that a leaf is not equal to another one, also it is certain that the concept leaf has formed when leaving of arbitrary way those individual differences, when forgetting the distinguishing notes, consequently the representation is provoked then, as if in the nature there was something separated of the leaves that were the leaf, a species of archetype primigenio". With the philosophy of Nietsche, true copernicana revolution that offers the instruments us to catch the modernity end, begins the adventure of the difference and the complexity (Santiago, 1993). The study of the biodiversity shows to us that the exceptions are majority (Blackwelder and Garoian, 1986). Also, the simbiodiversidad idea, is that, is one more an idea than a concept, (" no-concepto") a dynamic idea by itself, stops from her, to think, in movement, to create, to speak and mainly to feel, because to think and to feel Bald Garci'a goes united according to Agustín. " To live is conocer" (Maturana and Varela cit. Capra, 1996).

13. Bibliographical references

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Abram D the 2001 magic of the senses. Kairós, Barcelona

Antúnez To 1996. And your sight nails in the eyes like one espá (Playing global and the complex thing) Classroom of Educative Innovation 51,37-45.

Blackwelder RE and Garoian GS 1986. CRC Handbook of Diversity Animal. CRC, Boca Raton.

Bowers CA 1997. Denial The culture of. SUNY Press, Albany.

Capra F 1996. The plot of the life. A new perspective of the alive systems. Anagram, Barcelona.

Carvajal A. 1993. Farmacoepidemiología. University, Valladolid.

Collinson AS 1988. Introduction to world vegetation. Unwin Hyman, London.

Chia M and Abrams D 2001. The multiorgásmico man. Neon Person, Madrid.

Chomsky N and Ramonet D (ed) 1996. How they sell the motorcycle to us. Icaria, Barcelona

Douglas M 1996. The acceptability of the risk according to social sciences. Paidós, Barcelona.

Dekoster J and Schollaert U. 2000. In bici, towards cities without bad smoke. European commission. Main directorate of Environment.

Eiroa JJ 2000 Slight knowledge of General Prehistory. Ariel, Barcelona.

Funtowicz S and Ravetz J 1996. Postnormal science: science in the context of the complexity. Political ecology 12,7-8

Harding S 1996. Is science multicultural? Challenges, Resources, Opportunities,

Uncertainties. In Goldberg DT (ed) Multiculturalism. To critical to reader. (pp. 344-370). Blackwell, Oxford.

Hattab To the 2002. L' ecologie ET is ensegneimenl. DES fondements partner-historiques aux representations DES enseignants of sciences. Afrique Orient. Casablanca.

Hernandez AJ 1989. Systemic methodology in university education. Narcea, Madrid.

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King S 1998. The four worlds of chamán. In Harner M and Doore G (ed) the trip of chamán. Treatment, power and personal growth. Kairós, Barcelona.

Knudtson P and Suzuki D 1992. Wisdom of the elders. Sttodart, Toronto.

Kosko B 1995. Blurred thought. The new science of the blurred logic. Critic, Barcelona.

Lovelock J 1992. Gaia. A science to cure the planet. Integral, Barcelona.

Mander J 1981. Four good reasons to eliminate the television. Gedisa, Barcelona.

Mander J 1996. In the absence of the asylum. The failure of the technology and the survival of the Indian nations. Olañeta, Palm.

Margulis L 2002. Symbiotic planet. A new point of view on the evolution. It debates, Barcelona.

Margulis L 2003. A revolution in the evolution. Universitat de València.

Margulis L and Sagan D. 1996. What is the life? Tusquets, Barcelona

Margulis L and Schwartz KV 1985. The five kingdoms. A guide illustrated of phyla of the Earth life. Work, Barcelona.

Martinez-Alier J 1992. Of the ecological economy to popular ecologism. Icaria, Barcelona.

Matre S goes 1995. Earth education: to new beginning. For Institute Earth Education. Greenville.

Maturana H and Varela F 1990. The tree of the knowledge: biological bases of the human thought. It debates, Madrid.

Ore JL 1995. Societies without state: the thought of the other. Akal, Madrid.

Morin and 1994. Introduction to the complex thought. Gedisa, Barcelona.

Morin and 1984. Science with brings back to consciousness. Anthropos, Barcelona.

Naveh Z and Lieberman S 1984. Landscape ecology. Theory and application. Springer, New York.

Nebel BJ and Wright RT 1999. Environmental sciences: ecology and sustainable development. Prentice Hall, Mexico.

Ott J 2000. Pharmacotheon: Enteógenas drugs, their vegetal sources and their history. Lbros of the March hare, Barcelona.

Peters RH 1991. To ecology criticizes for. C.U. Press, Cambridge.

Clubs J 2000. Ehkardiyea l'armáziga k'ai hugo! Antolohía'e tehtoh in andalú to der Huan Porrah Blanko. Iralka, Donostia.

Reinaga R 1988. No copy releases. In Contreras J (comp) the Indian face, the cross of the 92. Indian identity ethnic and movements. Revolution, Madrid.

Riechmann J and Tickner J (coord) 2002. The precaution principle: in environment and public health, of the definitions to the practice. Icaria, Barcelona.

Rodriguez Cairo and 1992. Of the multidisciplinary nature to the transdisciplinariedad. Conference. Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, 10.06.92

Selby D 1996. Global education: Towards an irreducible global perspective in the school. Classroom of Educative Innovation 51,25-30.

Tiavea T of 1989. Papalagi (the white men). Speeches of a Samoan head reunited by E. Scheurmann. Integral, Barcelona.

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