lunes, 22 de noviembre de 2010

Por qué "Experience" empieza por "Ex"

experienced Look up experienced at Dictionary.com
"having experience; skillful through expereince," 1570s, pp. adj. from see experience (v.).
experience (v.) Look up experience at Dictionary.com
1530s, "to test, try;" see experience (n.). Sense of "feel, undergo" first recorded 1580s. Related: Experiences; experiencing.
experience (n.) Look up experience at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "observation as the source of knowledge; actual observation; an event which has affected one," from O.Fr. esperience (13c.) "experiment, proof, experience," from L. experientia "knowledge gained by repeated trials," from experientem (nom. experiens), prp. of experiri "to try, test," from ex- "out of" (see ex-) + peritus "experienced, tested," from PIE base *per- "to lead, pass over" (see peril). Meaning "state of having done something and gotten handy at it" is from late 15c.
empiric (adj.) Look up empiric at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from L. empiricus "a physician guided by experience," from Gk. empeirikos "experienced," from empeiria "experience," from empeiros "skilled," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + peira "trial, experiment," from PIE *per- "to try, risk." Originally a school of ancient physicians who based their practice on experience rather than theory. Earlier as a noun (1540s) in reference to the sect, and earliest (1520s) in a sense "quack doctor" which was in frequent use 16c.-19c.
expert (adj.) Look up expert at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from O.Fr. expert and directly from L. expertus, pp. of experiri "to try, test" (see experience). The n. sense of "person wise through experience" existed 15c., reappeared 1825.
experimental Look up experimental at Dictionary.com
mid 15c., "having experience," from experiment + -al (1). Meaning "based on experience" is from 1560s. Meaning "for the sake of experiment" is from 1792 (e.g. Experimental farm).
solvitur ambulando Look up solvitur ambulando at Dictionary.com
an appeal to practical experience for a solution or proof, from L., lit. "(the problem) is solved by walking," originally in ref. to the proof by Diogenes the Cynic of the possibility of motion.
Fahrenheit Look up Fahrenheit at Dictionary.com
1753, named for Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), Prussian physicist who proposed the scale in 1714. An abstract surname meaning lit. "experience."
relive Look up relive at Dictionary.com
1540s, "to come to life again" (also "to restore to life again"), from re- "back, again" + live (v.). Meaning "to experience over again" is attested from c.1711.
unseasoned Look up unseasoned at Dictionary.com
1580s, "not made palatable by seasoning," from un- (1) "not" + pp. of season (v.). Meaning "not habituated by experience" is recorded from c.1600.
trip (n.) Look up trip at Dictionary.com
"act or action of tripping," 1650s, from trip (v.); sense of "a short journey or voyage" is from 1690s, originally a nautical term, the connection is uncertain. The meaning "psychedelic drug experience" is first recorded 1959 as a noun; the verb in this sense is from 1966, from the noun.
rudiment Look up rudiment at Dictionary.com
1540s, from M.Fr. (16c.), from L. rudimentum "early training, first experience, beginning, first principle," from rudis "unlearned, untrained" (see rude).
noob Look up noob at Dictionary.com
c.2000 in gamer slang, variant of newbie; often used interchangeably with it, but also often with a more derogatory shade of meaning; newbies owe their clueless behavior to lack of experience and can improve, while the fundamental characteristic of noobs is obnoxiousness or stupidity.
around Look up around at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from phrase on round. Rare before 1600. In sense of "here and there with no fixed direction" it is 1776, Amer.Eng. (properly about). Of time, from 1888. To have been around "gained worldly experience" is from 1927, U.S. colloquial.
been Look up been at Dictionary.com
pp. of be. Dismissive slang phrase been there, done that attested from 1994 (been there "had the experience," usually of something disreputable, is from 1880s).
mindset Look up mindset at Dictionary.com
"habits of mind formed by previous experience," 1934, from mind (n.) + set (v.).
fit (n.2) Look up fit at Dictionary.com
"paroxysm, sudden attack" (as of anger), 1540s, probably via M.E. sense of "painful, exciting experience" (early 14c.), from O.E. fitt "conflict, struggle," of uncertain origin, with no clear cognates outside English. Perhaps ultimately cognate with fit (n.1) on notion of "to meet." Phrase by fits and starts first attested 1610s.
telecommute Look up telecommute at Dictionary.com
by 1974 (as a hypothetical experience), from tele- + commute. Related: Telecommuted; telecommuting.
humanism Look up humanism at Dictionary.com
along with humanist used in a variety of philosophical and theological senses 16c.-18c., especially ones imitating L. humanitas "education befitting a cultivated man." Main modern sense traces to c.1860; as a pragmatic system of thought, defined 1907 by co-founder F.C.S. Schiller as: "The perception that the philosophical problem concerns human beings striving to comprehend a world of human experience by the resources of human minds."
experiential Look up experiential at Dictionary.com
1640s (implied in experientially), from L. experientia (see experience) + -al (1).
historian Look up historian at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from M.Fr. historien, from L. historia (see history). As "writer of history in the higher sense" (distinguished from a mere annalist or chronicler), from 1530s. The O.E. word was þeod-wita.
[T]he historian's fallacy is the error of assuming that a man who has a given historical experience knows it, when he has had it, to be all that a historian would know it to be, with the advantage of historical perspective. [David Hackett Fischer, "Historians' Fallacies," 1970]
usage Look up usage at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "established practice, custom," from Anglo-Fr. and O.Fr. usage "custom, habit, experience," from us, from L. usus "use, custom" (see use).
thrill (v.) Look up thrill at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "to pierce, penetrate," metathesis of O.E. þyrlian, from þyrel "hole" (in M.E., also "nostril"), from þurh "through" (cf. M.H.G. dürchel "pierced, perforated") + -el. Meaning "give a shivering, exciting feeling" is first recorded 1590s, via metaphoric notion of "pierce with emotion." The noun in this sense is from 1670s; meaning "a thrilling experience" is attested from 1936. Related: Thrilled; thrilling.
elephant Look up elephant at Dictionary.com
c.1300, olyfaunt, from O.Fr. oliphant (12c.), from L. elephantus, from Gk. elephas (gen. elephantos) "elephant, ivory," probably from a non-I.E. language, likely via Phoenician (cf. Hamitic elu "elephant," source of the word for it in many Semitic languages, or possibly from Skt. ibhah "elephant"). Re-spelled after 1550 on Latin model. As an emblem of the Republican Party in U.S. politics, 1860. To see the elephant "be acquainted with life, gain knowledge by experience" is an Amer.Eng. colloquialism from 1835.
trauma Look up trauma at Dictionary.com
1650s (implied in traumatic), "physical wound," from Gk. trauma "wound," from PIE *tro-, *trau-, from base *tere- "to rub, turn" (see throw (v.)). Sense of "psychic wound, unpleasant experience which causes abnormal stress" is implied in traumatic, in psychological jargon 1889.
experiment (n.) Look up experiment at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from O.Fr. esperment "practical knowledge, cunning, enchantment; trial, proof, example, lesson," from L. experimentum "a trial, test, proof, experiment," noun of action from experiri "to test, try" (see experience). The verb is attested from late 15c., from the noun. Related: Experimented; experimenting.
peril Look up peril at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from O.Fr. peril (10c.), from L. periculum "an attempt, risk, danger," with instrumentive suffix -culum and root of ex-peri-ri "to try," cognate with Gk. peria "trial, attempt, experience," empeiros "experienced," O.Ir. aire "vigilance," Goth. ferja "watcher," O.E. fær "danger, fear," all ultimately from PIE base *per- "to lead across, pass over."
episode Look up episode at Dictionary.com
1670s, "commentary between two choric songs in a Greek tragedy," also "an incidental narrative or digression within a story, poem, etc.," from Fr. épisode or directly from Gk. epeisodion "addition," originally neut. of epeisodios "coming in besides," from epi "in addition" (see epi-) + eisodos "a coming in, entrance" (from eis "into" + hodos "way"). Sense of "outstanding incident, experience" first recorded in English 1773. Transferred by 1930s to individual broadcasts of serial radio programs.
sentiment Look up sentiment at Dictionary.com
late 14c., sentement, "personal experience, one's own feeling," from O.Fr. sentement (12c.), from M.L. sentimentum "feeling, affection, opinion," from L. sentire "to feel" (see sense). Meaning "what one feels about something" (1630s) and modern spelling seem to be a re-introduction from French (where it was spelled sentiment by this time). A vogue word with wide application mid-18c., commonly "a thought colored by or proceeding from emotion" (1762), especially as expressed in literature or art. The 17c. sense is preserved in phrases such as my sentiments exactly.
narcissism Look up narcissism at Dictionary.com
1905, from Ger. Narzissismus, coined 1899 by Ger. psychiatrist Paul Näcke (1851-1913) [in "Die sexuellen Perversitäten"], on a comparison first suggested 1898 by Havelock Ellis, from Gk. Narkissos, name of a beautiful youth in mythology (Ovid, "Metamorphoses," iii.370) who fell in love with his own reflection in a spring and was turned to the flower narcissus (q.v.).
But already Krishna, enamoured of himself, had resolved to experience lust for his own self; he manifested his own Nature in the cow-herd girls and enjoyed them." [Karapatri, "Lingopasana-rahasya," Siddhanta, II, 1941-2]
Sometimes erroneously as narcism.
there Look up there at Dictionary.com
O.E. þær "in or at that place," from P.Gmc. *thær (cf. O.S. thar, O.Fris. ther, M.L.G. dar, M.Du. daer, Du. daar, O.H.G. dar, Ger. da, Goth. þar, O.N. þar), from PIE *tar- "there" (cf. Skt. tar-hi "then"), from base *to- (see the) + adverbial suffix -r. Interjectional use is recorded from 1535. To have been there "had previous experience of some activity" is recorded from 1877.
inexperience Look up inexperience at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Fr. inexpérience (mid-15c.), from L.L. inexperientia, from in- "not" + experientia (see experience).
baptism Look up baptism at Dictionary.com
c.1300, bapteme, from O.Fr. batesme, bapteme (11c., Mod.Fr. baptême), from L. baptismus, from Gk. baptismos, noun of action from baptizein (see baptize). The -s- restored in later 14c. Figurative sense is from late 14c. Phrase baptism of fire "a soldier's first experience of battle" (1857) translates Fr. baptême de feu; the phrase originally was ecclesiastical Gk. baptisma pyros and meant "the grace of the Holy Spirit as imparted through baptism." Later it was used of martyrdom, especially by burning.
guess (v.) Look up guess at Dictionary.com
c.1300, gessen "to estimate, appraise," originally "take aim," probably from Scandinavian (cf. Middle Dan. gitse, getze "to guess," O.N. geta "guess, get"), possibly infl. by M.Du. gessen, M.L.G. gissen "to guess," all from P.Gmc. *getiskanan "to get" (see get). Sense evolution is from "to get," to "to take aim at," to "to estimate." U.S. sense of "calculate, recon" is true to the oldest English meaning. Spelling with gu- is late 16c., sometimes attributed to Caxton and his early experience as a printer in Bruges. Related: Guessed; guessing.
fear (n.) Look up fear at Dictionary.com
O.E. fær "calamity, sudden danger, peril," from P.Gmc. *feraz "danger" (cf. O.S. far "ambush," O.N. far "harm, distress, deception," Du. gevaar, Ger. Gefahr "danger"), from PIE base *per- "to try, risk, come over, go through" (perhaps connected with Gk. peira "trial, attempt, experience," L. periculum "trial, risk, danger"). Sense of "uneasiness caused by possible danger" developed late 12c. O.E. words for "fear" as we now use it were ege, fyrhto; as a verb, ondrædan.
bum (2) Look up bum at Dictionary.com
"dissolute loafer, tramp," 1864, Amer.Eng., from bummer "loafer, idle person" (1855), possibly an extension of the British word for "backside" (similar development took place in Scotland, 1540), but more prob. from Ger. slang bummler "loafer," from bummeln "go slowly, waste time." Bum first appears in a Ger.-Amer. context, and bummer was popular in the slang of the North's army in Amer. Civil War (as many as 216,000 Ger. immigrants in the ranks). Bum's rush "forcible ejection" first recorded 1910. Bummer "bad experience" is 1960s slang.
connotation Look up connotation at Dictionary.com
1530s, from M.L. connotationem (nom. connotatio), from connotat-, pp. stem of connotare "signify in addition to the main meaning," a term in logic, lit. "to mark along with," from L. com- "together" (see com-) + notare "to mark" (see note). A word denotes its primary meaning, its barest adequate definition -- father denotes "one that has begotten." A word connotes the attributes commonly associated with it -- father connotes "male sex, prior existence, greater experience, affection, guidance."
mulatto Look up mulatto at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Sp. or Port. mulato "of mixed breed," lit. "young mule," from mulo "mule," from L. mulus (fem. mula) "mule," possibly in allusion to hybrid origin of mules. Fem. mulatta is attested from 1620s.
American culture, even in its most rigidly segregated precincts, is patently and irrevocably composite. It is, regardless of all the hysterical protestations of those who would have it otherwise, incontestibly mulatto. Indeed, for all their traditional antagonisms and obvious differences, the so-called black and so-called white people of the United States resemble nobody else in the world so much as they resemble each other. [Albert Murray, "The Omni-Americans: Black Experience & American Culture," 1970]
tough Look up tough at Dictionary.com
O.E. toh "difficult to break or chew," from P.Gmc. *tankhuz (cf. M.L.G. tege, M.Du. taey, Du. taai, O.H.G. zach, Ger. zäh). See rough for spelling change. Figurative sense of "strenuous, difficult, hard to beat" is first recorded c.1200; that of "hard to do, trying, laborious" is from 1610s. The noun meaning "street ruffian" (U.S.) is from 1866. Verb tough it "endure the experience" is first recorded 1830, Amer.Eng. Tough guy first recorded 1932. Tough-minded first recorded 1907 in William James. Tough luck first recorded 1912; tough shit is from 1946.
nightmare Look up nightmare at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "an evil female spirit afflicting sleepers with a feeling of suffocation," compounded from night + mare "goblin that causes nightmares, incubus," from O.E. mare "incubus," from mera, mære, from P.Gmc. *maron "goblin," from PIE *mora- "incubus," from base *mer- "to rub away, harm, seize" (cf. first element in O.Ir. Morrigain "demoness of the corpses," lit. "queen of the nightmare," also Bulg., Serb., Pol. mora "incubus;" Fr. cauchemar, with first element is from O.Fr. caucher "to trample"). Meaning shifted mid-16c. from the incubus to the suffocating sensation it causes. Sense of "any bad dream" first recorded 1829; that of "very distressing experience" is from 1831.
know Look up know at Dictionary.com
O.E. cnawan (class VII strong verb; past tense cneow, pp. cnawen), from P.Gmc. *knoeanan (cf. O.H.G. bi-chnaan, ir-chnaan "to know"), from PIE base *gno- "to know" (cf. O.Pers. xšnasatiy "he shall know;" O.C.S. znati, Rus. znat "to know;" L. gnoscere; Gk. *gno-, as in gignoskein; Skt. jna- "know"). Once widespread in Germanic, this form is now retained only in English, where however it has widespread application, covering meanings that require two or more verbs in other languages (e.g. Ger. wissen, kennen, erkennen and in part können; Fr. connaître, savoir; L. novisse, cognoscire, scire; O.C.S. znaja, vemi). The Anglo-Saxons used two distinct words for this, witan (see wit) and cnawan. Meaning "to have sexual intercourse with" is attested from c.1200, from the O.T. To not know one's ass from one's elbow is from 1930. To know better "to have learned from experience" is from 1704. You know as a parenthetical filler is from 1712, but it has roots in 14c.
cum Look up cum at Dictionary.com
(v. and n.) seems to be a modern (by 1973) variant of the sexual sense of come that originated in pornographic writing, perhaps first in the noun sense. This "experience sexual orgasm" slang meaning of come (perhaps originally come off) is attested from 1650, in "Walking In A Meadowe Greene," in a folio of "loose songs" collected by Bishop Percy.
They lay soe close together, they made me much to wonder;
I knew not which was wether, until I saw her under.
Then off he came, and blusht for shame soe soon that he had endit;
Yet still she lies, and to him cryes, "one more and none can mend it."
As a noun meaning "semen or other product of orgasm" it is on record from the 1920s. The sexual cum seems to have no connection with L. cum, the preposition meaning "with, together with," which is occasionally used in English in local names of combined parishes or benifices (e.g. Chorlton-cum-Hardy), in popular Latin phrases (e.g. cum laude), or as a combining word to indicate a dual nature or function (e.g. slumber party-cum-bloodbath).
pass (v.) Look up pass at Dictionary.com
late 13c. (trans.) "to go by (something)," also "to cross over," from O.Fr. passer, from V.L. *passare "to step, walk, pass," from L. passus "step, pace" (see pace (1)). Intrans. sense of "to go on, to move forward, make one's way" is attested from c.1300. Figurative sense of "to experience, undergo" (as in pass the time) is first recorded late 14c. The meaning "to be thought to be something one is not" (especially in racial sense) is from 1935, from pass oneself off (as), first found 1809. The general verb sense of "to be accepted as equivalent" is from 1590s. Sense of "to go through an examination successfully" is from early 15c. Meaning "decline to do something" is attested from 1869, originally in cards (euchre). In football, hockey, soccer, etc., the meaning "to transfer the ball or puck to another player" is from c.1865. Colloquial make a pass "offer an amorous advance" first recorded 1928, perhaps from a sporting sense. Pass up "decline, refuse" is attested from 1896. Pass the buck is from 1865, said to be poker slang reference to the buck horn-handled knife that was passed around to signify whose turn it was to deal. Pass the hat "seek contributions" is from 1762. Pass-fail as a grading method is attested from 1959.
hell Look up hell at Dictionary.com
O.E. hel, helle "nether world, abode of the dead, infernal regions," from P.Gmc. *khaljo (cf. O.Fris. helle, O.N. hel, Ger. Hölle, Goth. halja "hell") "the underworld," lit. "concealed place," from PIE *kel- "to cover, conceal, save" (see cell). The English word may be in part from O.N. Hel (from P.Gmc. *khalija "one who covers up or hides something"), in Norse mythology Loki's daughter, who rules over the evil dead in Niflheim, the lowest of all worlds (nifl "mist"). Transfer of a pagan concept and word to a Christian idiom, used in the KJV for O.T. Heb. Sheol and N.T. Gk. Hades, Gehenna. Used figuratively for "any bad experience" since at least late 14c. As an expression of disgust, etc., first recorded 1670s. Hell-raiser is from 1914 (to raise hell is from 1896); Expression Hell in a handbasket is c.1941, perhaps a revision of earlier heaven in a handbasket (c.1913), with a sense of "easy passage" to whichever destination. Hell or high water is apparently a variation of between the devil and the deep blue sea. To wish someone would go to hell is in Shakespeare (1596). Snowball's chance in hell "no chance" is from 1931; till hell freezes over "never" is from 1919. To ride hell for leather is from 1889, originally with reference to riding on horseback. Hell on wheels is from 1843.
school (1) Look up school at Dictionary.com
"place of instruction," O.E. scol, from L. schola, from Gk. skhole "school, lecture, discussion," also "leisure, spare time," originally "a holding back, a keeping clear," from skhein "to get" + -ole by analogy with bole "a throw," stole "outfit," etc. The original notion is "leisure," which passed to "otiose discussion," then "place for such." The PIE base is *segh- "to hold, hold in one's power, to have" (see scheme). The Latin word was widely borrowed, cf. O.Fr. escole, Fr. école, Sp. escuela, It. scuola, O.H.G. scuola, Ger. Schule, Swed. skola, Gael. sgiol, Welsh ysgol, Rus. shkola. Replaced O.E. larhus "lore house." Meaning "students attending a school" is attested from c.1300; sense of "school building" is first recorded 1590s. Sense of "people united by a general similarity of principles and methods" is from 1610s; hence school of thought (1864). The verb is attested from 1570s. School of hard knocks "rough experience in life" is recorded from 1912 (in George Ade); to tell tales out of school "betray damaging secrets" is from 1546. Schoolmarm is attested from 1831, U.S. colloquial; used figuratively for "patronizingly and priggishly instructing" from 1887.
Wicca Look up Wicca at Dictionary.com
An O.E. masc. noun meaning "male witch, wizard, soothsayer, sorcerer, magician;" see witch. Use of the word in modern contexts traces to English folklorist Gerald Gardner (1884-1964), who is said to have joined circa 1939 an occult group in New Forest, Hampshire, England, for which he claimed an unbroken tradition to medieval times. Gardner seems to have first used it in print in 1954, in his book "Witchcraft Today" (e.g.: "Witches were the Wica or wise people, with herbal knowledge and a working occult teaching usually used for good ...."). In published and unpublished material, he apparently only ever used the word as a mass noun referring to adherents of the practice and not as the name of the practice itself. Some of his followers continue to use it in this sense. According to Gardner's book "The Meaning of Witchcraft" (1959), the word, as used in the initiation ceremony, played a key role in his experience:
I realised that I had stumbled upon something interesting; but I was half-initiated before the word, 'Wica' which they used hit me like a thunderbolt, and I knew where I was, and that the Old Religion still existed. And so I found myself in the Circle, and there took the usual oath of secrecy, which bound me not to reveal certain things.
In the late 1960s the term came into use as the title of a modern pagan movement associated with witchcraft. The first printed reference in this usage seems to be 1969, in "The Truth About Witchcraft" by freelance author Hans Holzer:
If the practice of the Old Religion, which is also called Wicca (Craft of the Wise), and thence, witchcraft, is a reputable and useful cult, then it is worthy of public interest.
And, quoting witch Alex Sanders:
"No, a witch wedding still needs a civil ceremony to make it legal. Wicca itself as a religion is not registered yet. But it is about time somebody registered it, I think. I've done all I can to call attention to our religion."
Sanders was a highly visible representative of neo-pagan Witchcraft in the late 1960s and early 1970s. During this time he appears to have popularized use of the term in this sense. Later books c.1989 teaching modernized witchcraft using the same term account for its rise and popularity, especially in U.S

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