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|Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin|
|Born||Grigori Yefimovich Novik |
22 January 1869(1869-01-22)
Pokrovskoye, Siberia, Russian Empire
|Died||29 December 1916 (aged 47) |
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
|Cause of death||Homicide|
|Other names||The Mad Monk |
The Black Monk
|Spouse(s)||Praskovia Fedorovna Dubrovina|
|Children||Dmitri (1897-1937) |
one illegitimate child
Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: Григорий Ефимович Распутин [ɡrɪˈɡorʲɪj jɪˈfʲiməvʲɪʨ rɐˈspʊtʲɪn]) (22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1869 – 29 December [O.S. 16 December] 1916) was a Russian mystic who is perceived as having influenced the latter days of the Russian Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their only son Alexei. Rasputin had often been called the "Mad Monk", while others considered him a "strannik" (or religious pilgrim) and even a starets (ста́рец, "elder", a title usually reserved for monk-confessors), believing him to be a psychic and faith healer.
It has been argued that Rasputin helped to discredit the tsarist government, leading to the fall of the Romanov dynasty, in 1917. Contemporary opinions saw Rasputin variously as a saintly mystic, visionary, healer and prophet or, on the contrary, as a debauched religious charlatan. There has been much uncertainty over Rasputin's life and influence as accounts of his life have often been based on dubious memoirs, hearsay and legend.
Rasputin was born a peasant in the small village of Pokrovskoye, along the Tura River in the Tobolsk guberniya (now Tyumen Oblast) in Siberia. The date of his birth remained in doubt for some time and was estimated sometime between 1863 and 1873. Recently, new documents surfaced revealing Rasputin's birth date as 10 January 1869 O.S. (equivalent to 22 January 1869 N.S.)
Not much is known about his childhood and what is known was most likely passed down through his family members. He had two known siblings, a sister called Maria and an older brother named Dmitri. His sister Maria, said to have been epileptic, drowned in a river. One day, when Rasputin was playing with his brother, Dmitri fell into a pond and Rasputin jumped in to save him. They were both pulled out of the water by a passerby but Dmitri eventually died of pneumonia. Both fatalities affected Rasputin and he subsequently named two of his children Maria and Dmitri.
The myths surrounding Rasputin portray him as showing indications of supernatural powers throughout his childhood. One ostensible example of these reputed powers was when Efim Rasputin, Grigori's father, had one of his horses stolen and it was claimed that Rasputin was able to identify the man who had committed the theft.
When he was around the age of eighteen Rasputin spent three months in the Verkhoturye Monastery, possibly as a penance for theft. His experience there, combined with a reported vision of the Mother of God on his return, turned him towards the life of a religious mystic and wanderer. It also appears that he came into contact with the banned Christian sect known as the khlysty (flagellants), whose impassioned services, ending in physical exhaustion, led to rumors that religious and sexual ecstasy were combined in these rituals. Suspicions (which have not generally been accepted by historians) that Rasputin was one of the Khlysts threatened his reputation right to the end of his life. Alexander Guchkov charged him with being a member of this illegal and orgiastic sect. The Tsar perceived the very real threat of a scandal and ordered his own investigations but did not, in the end, remove Rasputin from his position of influence; on the contrary he fired his minister of the interior for a "lack of control over the press" (censorship being a top priority for Nicholas then). He then pronounced the affair to be a private one closed to debate.
Shortly after leaving the monastery, Rasputin visited a holy man named Makariy whose hut was nearby. Makariy had an enormous influence on Rasputin and he modelled himself after him. Rasputin married Praskovia Fyodorovna Dubrovina in 1889 and they had three children; Dmitri, Varvara and Maria. Rasputin also had another child with another woman. In 1901 he left his home in Pokrovskoye as a strannik (or pilgrim) and, during the time of his journeying, travelled to Greece and Jerusalem. In 1903 he arrived in Saint Petersburg where he gradually gained a reputation as a starets (or holy man) with healing and prophetic powers.
Healer to Alexei
Rasputin was wandering as a pilgrim in Siberia when he heard reports of Tsarevich Alexei's illness. It was not publicly known in 1904 that Alexei had haemophilia, a disease that was widespread among European royalty descended from the British Queen Victoria, who was Alexei's great-grandmother. When doctors could not help Alexei, the Tsaritsa looked everywhere for help, ultimately turning to her best friend, Anna Vyrubova, to secure the help of the charismatic peasant healer Rasputin in 1905. He was said to possess the ability to heal through prayer and was indeed able to give the boy some relief, in spite of the doctors' prediction that he would die. Every time the boy had an injury which caused him internal or external bleeding, the Tsaritsa called on Rasputin, and the Tsarevich subsequently got better. This made it appear that Rasputin was effectively healing him.
Skeptics have claimed that he did so by hypnosis, which, in one study, actually has proven to relieve symptoms because it lowers stress levels and therefore diminishes the symptomatology of haemophilia. However, during a particularly grave crisis at Spala in Poland in 1912, Rasputin sent a telegram from his home in Siberia, which is believed to have eased the suffering. His pragmatic advice include suggestions such as "Don't let the doctors bother him too much; let him rest." This was thought to have helped Alexei to relax and allow the child's own natural healing process some headroom. Others have made the less likely suggestion that he used leeches to attempt to treat the boy. As leech saliva contains anticoagulants such as hirudin, this treatment would most likely have exacerbated his haemophilia instead of providing relief. Diarmuid Jeffreys has pointed out that Rasputin's healing suggestions included halting the administration of aspirin, a then newly-available (since 1899) pain-relieving (analgesic) "wonder drug". As aspirin is also an anticoagulant, this intervention would have helped to mitigate the hemarthrosis causing Alexei's joints' swelling and pain.
The Tsar referred to Rasputin as "our friend" and a "holy man," a sign of the trust that the family had placed in him. Rasputin had a considerable personal and political influence on Alexandra, and the Tsar and Tsaritsa considered him a man of God and a religious prophet. Alexandra came to believe that God spoke to her through Rasputin. Of course, this relationship can also be viewed in the context of the very strong, traditional, age-old bond between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian leadership. Another important factor was probably the Tsaritsa's German-Protestant origin: she was definitely highly fascinated by her new Orthodox outlook — the Orthodox religion puts a great deal of faith in the healing powers of prayer.
Rasputin soon became a controversial figure, becoming involved in a paradigm of sharp political struggle involving monarchist, anti-monarchist, revolutionary and other political forces and interests. He was accused by many eminent persons of various misdeeds, ranging from an unrestricted sexual life (including raping a nun) to undue political domination over the royal family. Some of these allegations of sexual misconduct were no doubt encouraged by his frequently embarrasing drunken behavior, on one occasion documented by a History Channel documentary he is said to have opened his pants and waved his penis in front of shocked diners at a Saint Petersburg restaurant whilst inebriated.
While fascinated by him, the Saint Petersburg elite did not widely accept Rasputin: he did not fit in with the royal family, and he and the Russian Orthodox Church had a very tense relationship. The Holy Synod frequently attacked Rasputin, accusing him of a variety of immoral or evil practices. Because Rasputin was a court official, though, he and his apartment were under 24-hour surveillance, and, accordingly, there exists some credible evidence about his lifestyle in the form of the famous "staircase notes" — reports from police spies which were not given only to the Tsar but also published in newspapers.
According to Rasputin's daughter, Maria, Rasputin did "look into" the Khlysty sect but rejected it. One Khlyst practice was known as "rejoicing" (радение), a ritual which sought to overcome human sexual urges by engaging in group sexual activities so that, in consciously sinning together, the sin's power over the human was nullified. Incidentally, she also claimed in her writing that her father had an unusually long penis. Rasputin is said to have been particularly appalled by the belief that grace is found through self-flagellation.
Like many spiritually minded Russians, Rasputin spoke of salvation as depending less on the clergy and the church than on seeking the spirit of God within. He also maintained that sin and repentance were interdependent and necessary to salvation. Thus, he claimed that yielding to temptation (and, for him personally, this meant sex and alcohol), even for the purposes of humiliation (so as to dispel the sin of vanity), was needed to proceed to repentance and salvation. Rasputin was deeply opposed to war, both from a moral point of view and as something which was likely to lead to political catastrophe. During the years of World War I, Rasputin's increasing drunkenness, sexual promiscuity and willingness to accept bribes (in return for helping petitioners who flocked to his apartment), as well as his efforts to have his critics dismissed from their posts, made him appear increasingly cynical. Attaining divine grace through sin seems to have been one of the central secret doctrines which Rasputin preached to (and practiced with) his inner circle of society ladies.
During World War I, Rasputin became the focus of accusations of unpatriotic influence at court; the unpopular Tsaritsa, meanwhile, was of German descent, and she came to be accused of acting as a spy in German employ.
When Rasputin expressed an interest in going to the front to bless the troops early in the war, the Commander-in-Chief, Grand Duke Nicholas, promised to hang him if he dared to show up there. Rasputin then claimed that he had a revelation that the Russian armies would not be successful until the Tsar personally took command. With this, the ill-prepared Tsar Nicholas proceeded to take personal command of the Russian army, with dire consequences for himself as well as for Russia.
While Tsar Nicholas II was away at the front, Rasputin's influence over Tsaritsa Alexandra increased immensely. He soon became her confidant and personal adviser, and also convinced her to fill some governmental offices with his own handpicked candidates. To further the advance of his power, Rasputin cohabited with upper-class women in exchange for granting political favours. Because of World War I and the ossifying effects of feudalism and a meddling government bureaucracy, Russia's economy was declining at a very rapid rate. Many at the time laid the blame with Alexandra and with Rasputin, because of his influence over her. Here is an example:
Vladimir Purishkevich was an outspoken member of the Duma. On November 19, 1916, Purishkevich made a rousing speech in the Duma, in which he stated, "The tsar's ministers who have been turned into marionettes, marionettes whose threads have been taken firmly in hand by Rasputin and the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna — the evil genius of Russia and the tsaritsa ... who has remained a German on the Russian throne and alien to the country and its people." Felix Yusupov attended the speech and afterwards contacted Purishkevich, who quickly agreed to participate in the murder of Rasputin.
Rasputin's influence over the royal family was used against him and the Romanovs by politicians and journalists who wanted to weaken the integrity of the dynasty, force the Tsar to give up his absolute political power and separate the Russian Orthodox Church from the state. Rasputin unintentionally contributed to their propaganda by having public disputes with clergy members, bragging about his ability to influence both the Tsar and Tsaritsa, and also by his dissolute and very public lifestyle. Nobles in influential positions around the Tsar, as well as some parties of the Duma, clamored for Rasputin's removal from the court. Perhaps inadvertently, Rasputin had added to the Tsar's subjects' diminishing respect for him.
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The legends surrounding the death of Rasputin are perhaps even more mysterious and bizarre than his life. According to Greg King's 1996 book The Man Who Killed Rasputin, a previous attempt on Rasputin's life had failed: Rasputin was visiting his wife and children in Pokrovskoye, his hometown along the Tura River in Siberia. On June 29, 1914, after either just receiving a telegram or exiting church, he was attacked suddenly by Khionia Guseva, a former prostitute who had become a disciple of the monk Iliodor. Iliodor, who once was a friend of Rasputin but had grown disgusted with his behaviour and disrespectful talk about the royal family, had appealed to women who had been harmed by Rasputin to form a mutual support group. Guseva thrust a knife into Rasputin's abdomen, and his entrails hung out of what seemed like a mortal wound. Convinced of her success, Guseva supposedly screamed, "I have killed the antichrist!"
After intensive surgery, however, Rasputin recovered. It was said of his survival that "the soul of this cursed muzhik was sewn on his body." His daughter, Maria, observed in her memoirs that he was never the same man after that: he seemed to tire more easily and frequently took opium for pain relief.
The murder of Rasputin has become a legend, some of it invented by the very men who killed him, which is why it has become difficult to discern the actual course of events. On December 16, 1916, having decided that Rasputin's influence over the Tsaritsa had made him a threat to the empire, a group of nobles led by Prince Felix Yusupov and the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich and the right-wing politician Vladimir Purishkevich apparently lured Rasputin to the Yusupovs' Moika Palace by intimating that Yusupov's wife, Princess Irina, would be present and receiving friends. (In point of fact, she was away in the Crimea.) The group led him down to the cellar, where they served him cakes and red wine laced with a massive amount of cyanide. According to legend, Rasputin was unaffected, although Vasily Maklakov had supplied enough poison to kill five men. Conversely, Maria's account asserts that, if her father did eat or drink poison, it was not in the cakes or wine, because after the attack by Guseva he suffered from hyperacidity and avoided anything with sugar. In fact, she expresses doubt that he was poisoned at all. It has been suggested, on the other hand, that Rasputin had developed an immunity to poison due to Mithridatism.
Determined to finish the job, Prince Yusupov became anxious about the possibility that Rasputin might live until the morning, leaving the conspirators no time to conceal his body. Yusupov ran upstairs to consult the others and then came back down to shoot Rasputin through the back with a revolver. Rasputin fell, and the company left the palace for a while. Yusupov, who had left without a coat, decided to return to get one, and while at the palace, he went to check on the body. Suddenly, Rasputin opened his eyes and lunged at Yusupov. He grabbed Yusupov, ominously whispered in his ear, "you bad boy," and attempted to strangle him. At that moment, however, the other conspirators arrived and fired at Rasputin. After being hit three times in the back, he fell once more. As they neared his body, the party found that, remarkably, he was still alive, struggling to get up. They clubbed him into submission. Some accounts say that his killers also sexually mutilated him, severing his penis (subsequently resulting in urban legends and claims that certain third parties were in possession of the organ). After binding his body and wrapping him in a carpet, they threw him into the icy Neva River. He broke out of his bonds and the carpet wrapping him, but drowned in the river.
Three days later, Rasputin's body, poisoned, shot four times, badly beaten, and drowned, was recovered from the river. An autopsy established that the cause of death was drowning. His arms were found in an upright position, as if he had tried to claw his way out from under the ice. It was found that he had indeed been poisoned, and that the poison alone should have been enough to kill him. There is a report that after his body was recovered, water was found in the lungs, supporting the idea that he was still alive before submersion into the partially frozen river.
Subsequently, the Tsaritsa Alexandra buried Rasputin's body in the grounds of Tsarskoye Selo, but after the February Revolution, a group of workers from Saint Petersburg uncovered the remains, carried them into the nearby woods, and burned them. As the body was being burned, Rasputin appeared to sit up in the fire. His apparent attempts to move and get up thoroughly horrified bystanders. The effect can probably be attributed to improper cremation; since the body was in inexperienced hands, the tendons were probably not cut before burning. Consequently, when the body was heated, the tendons shrank, forcing the legs to bend and the body to bend at the waist, resulting in its appearing to sit up. This final happenstance only further fueled the legends and mysteries surrounding Rasputin, which continue to live on long after his death. The official report of his autopsy disappeared during the Stalin era, as did several research assistants who had seen it.
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The details of the killing given by Felix Yusupov have never stood up to scrutiny. He changed his account several times; the statement given to the St. Petersburg police on December 16, 1916, the accounts given whilst in exile in the Crimea in 1917, his 1927 book, and, finally, the accounts given, under oath, to libel juries in 1934 and 1965 all differ to some extent, and until recently no other credible, evidence-based theories have been available.
According to the unpublished 1916 autopsy report by Professor Kossorotov, as well as subsequent reviews by Dr. Vladimir Zharov in 1993 and Professor Derrick Pounder in 2004/05, no active poison was found in Rasputin's stomach. A possible explanation would be that the cyanide had vaporized due to the high temperatures during the baking in the oven.
It could not be determined with certainty that he drowned, as the water found in his lungs is a common non-specific autopsy finding. All three sources agree that Rasputin had been systematically beaten and attacked with a bladed weapon, but, most importantly, there were discrepancies regarding the number and caliber of handguns used.
This discovery may significantly change the whole premise and account of Rasputin's death. British intelligence reports, sent between London and Saint Petersburg in 1916, indicate that the British were not only extremely concerned about Rasputin's displacement of pro-British ministers in the Russian government but, even more importantly, his apparent insistence on withdrawing Russian troops from World War I. This withdrawal would have allowed the Germans to transfer their Eastern Front troops to the Western Front, leading to a massive outnumbering of the Allies, and threatening their defeat. Whether this was actually Rasputin's intent or whether he was simply concerned about the huge number of casualties (as the Tsaritsa's letters indicate) is in dispute, but it is clear that the British perceived him as a real threat to the war effort.
Professor Pounder tells us that of the four shots fired into Rasputin's body, the third (which entered his forehead) was instantly fatal. This third shot also provides some intriguing evidence. In Pounder's view, with which the Firearms Department of London's Imperial War Museum agrees, the third shot was fired from a different gun from those responsible for the other three wounds. The "size and prominence of the abraded margin" suggested a large lead non-jacketed bullet. At the time, the majority of weapons used hard metal-jacketed bullets, with Britain virtually alone in using lead unjacketed bullets in their officers' Webley revolvers. Pounder came to the conclusion that the bullet which caused the fatal shot was a Webley .455 inch unjacketed round, the best fit with the available forensic evidence.
There were two officers of the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) in St. Petersburg at the time. Witnesses stated that at the scene of the murder, the only man present with a Webley revolver was Lieutenant Oswald Rayner, a British officer attached to the SIS station in St. Petersburg. This account is further supported by an audience between the British Ambassador, Sir George Buchanan, and Tsar Nicholas, when Nicholas stated that he suspected a young Englishman who had been an old school friend of Yusupov (Rayner certainly had known Yusupov at Oxford). The second SIS officer in St. Petersburg at the time was Captain Stephen Alley, born in the Yusupov Palace in 1876. Both families had very strong ties, so it is difficult to come to any conclusion about whom to hold responsible.
Confirmation that Rayner met with Yusupov (along with another officer, Captain John Scale) in the weeks leading up to the killing can be found in the diary of their chauffeur, William Compton, who recorded all visits. The last entry was made on the night after the murder. Compton said that "it is a little known fact that Rasputin was shot not by a Russian but by an Englishman" and indicated that the culprit was a lawyer from the same part of the country as Compton himself. There is little doubt that Rayner was born some ten miles from Compton's hometown and, throughout his life, described himself as a barrister-at-law, despite never having practised in that profession.
Evidence that the attempt had not gone quite according to plan is hinted at in a letter which Alley wrote to Scale eight days after the murder: "Although matters here have not proceeded entirely to plan, our objective has clearly been achieved. ... a few awkward questions have already been asked about wider involvement. Rayner is attending to loose ends and will no doubt brief you."
On his return to England, Oswald Rayner not only confided to his cousin, Rose Jones, that he had been present at Rasputin's murder but also showed family members a bullet which he claimed to have acquired at the murder scene. Conclusive evidence is unattainable, however, as Rayner burned all his papers before he died in 1961 and his only son also died four years later.
Rasputin's daughter, Maria Rasputin (Matryona Rasputina) (1898–1977), emigrated to France after the October Revolution, and then to the U.S. There she worked as a dancer and then a tiger-trainer in a circus. She left memoirs about her father, wherein she painted an almost saintly picture of him, insisting that most of the negative stories were based on slander and the misinterpretations of facts by his enemies.
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The name Rasputin is not an uncommon surname in Russia, and it is not considered in any way untoward. In Russian, it does not mean "licentious", which has often been claimed. There is, however, a very similar Russian adjective, rasputny (распу́тный), which does mean "licentious" — as well as the corresponding noun, распутны "rasputnik". Some even suggest that his name meant "dissolute". There are at least two options for the root-word: one of them is "put", which means "way", "road", and other close nouns are rasputye, a place where the roads diverge or converge, and rasputitsa (распу́тица), "muddy road season". Some historians argue that the name Rasputin may be a place name, since it does roughly signify "a place where two rivers meet", describing the area from which the Rasputin family originates and where his sibling died. Yet another possibility is the just-mentioned "put'" giving rise to the verb "putat", which means to "entangle" or "mix up" — "rasputat' " being its antonym — "disentangle", "untie", "clean up a misunderstanding". However, the most well-founded explanation is a standard Russian surname derivation from the old Slavic name "Rasputa" ("Rasputko") (recorded as early as in sixteenth century), with the meaning "ill-behaved child", the one whose ways are against traditions or the will of parents.
It is said that Rasputin tried to have his name changed to the more inconspicuous "Novykh" (Russian: Новыx) after his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land — "Novykh" (from the Russian Новый, meaning "New") connotes "Novice" — but that is the subject of much dispute.
In popular culture
- The music group Boney M released the semi-biographical song "Rasputin" in 1978. It was covered in the 1990s by Boiled in Lead and in 2007, it was remade by the music group Turisas.
- In 2007, Type O Negative featured a photo of Rasputin on the cover of their latest album, Dead Again.
- The Rasputin Music stores, a chain in California, is named for Rasputin, and its advertising even contains photographic images and other altered images of Rasputin. The store's logo on its website features the classic image of Rasputin as a DJ mixing the tunes.
- The band Mastodon makes references to Rasputin throughout their album Crack the Skye.
- The band Rasputina is named after a song front woman Melora Creager wrote about Rasputin and his daughter Maria.
The final days of Rasputin’s life were portrayed on stage in Rivers of Blood written by the American poet and playwright Jay Jeff Jones. The play was produced in London in 1983 and was directed by the Irish novelist and poet Dermot Healy. The role of Rasputin was played by Gabriel Connaughton (brother of the novelist and Oscar nominated screenwriter Shane Connaughton).
Rasputin's story has been fictionalized in a number of films since the 1920s. The first film made about him, Rasputin, the Black Monk, premiered in October 1917, but all copies have been lost.
In 1932, Rasputin was portrayed by Lionel Barrymore in Rasputin and the Empress, from MGM studios. The Czarina was portrayed by Ethel Barrymore and Prince Paul Chegodieff by John Barrymore. In 1938, a French film about his life called La Tragédie impériale (a.k.a. Rasputin), starring Harry Baur was based on a novel by Alfred Neumann and directed by Marcel L'Herbier.
An extremely fictionalized Rasputin portrayed by Christopher Lloyd and Jim Cummings (providing his singing voice) stars as the primary antagonist in the 1997 animated film Anastasia. Along with a litany of other historical inaccuracies regarding the Romanov Dynasty and Russian Revolution, Rasputin is portrayed as a former confidante to Tzar Nicholas who is banished as a traitor after being revealed as a charlatan. He is also depicted as a lich, having sold his soul for the power to destroy the Romanovs and now bound to a mystic talisman he was granted by his deal; while the talisman allowed him to survive his 'death', he is trapped in limbo until Anastasia, the last of the Romanovs, is killed, and the destruction of the talisman results in his own permanent death.
In the 2004 film Hellboy, Rasputin, portrayed by Karel Roden, is depicted as having survived his homicide, and is seen working with the Nazis, demonstrating great occult abilities linked with the underworld. Rasputin is depicted as being nearly immortal; every time he dies, he is resurrected with a part of his god within his body. Although he attempts to force Hellboy to surrender to his demonic heritage to unleash Hell, Hellboy's partner John Myers is able to remind Hellboy of his essential humanity, giving Hellboy the strength to resist Rasputin (Although his actions result in Rasputin's god emerging into this world).
In the Doctor Who Past Doctor Adventures novel The Wages of Sin, the Third Doctor, accompanied by Liz Shaw and Jo Grant, unintentionally arrives in 1916 and meet Rasputin, learning that his negative reputation was actually created by his enemies after his death and Rasputin himself is actually rather friendly. Despite this, the Doctor is forced to simply witness Rasputin's death in order to preserve history, despite having the chance to save him from drowning.
- California brewer North Coast Brewing Company produces a Russian Imperial Stout called Old Rasputin that is distributed throughout the state.
- Vodka "Rasputin" was widely sold in Russia and heavily advertised on TV in early 1990s.
Notes and citations
- ^ a b c Rasputin: The Mad Monk [DVD]. USA: A&E Home Video. 2005.
- ^ C. L. Sulzberger, The Fall of Eagles, pp.263-278, Crown Publishers, New York, 1977
- ^ a b c Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs, Arthur Baker Limited, 1964, p. 23-26.
- ^ Heinz Liepman, Rasputin and the Fall of Imperial Russia, p. 21.
- ^ Edvard Radzinsky & Judson Rosengrant (ed.), The Rasputin File, Nan A. Talese, 2000, p. 25.
- ^ P.N., no. 5644, September 6, 1936.
- ^ a b Massie, p. 185.
- ^ "Science Watch; Hypnosis for Hemophiliacs". The New York Times. 1986-05-06. http://www.nytimes.com/1986/05/06/science/science-watch-hypnosis-for-hemophiliacs.html?sec=health. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- ^ Massie, p. 187.
- ^ Diarmuid Jeffreys (2004). Aspirin. The Remarkable Story of a Wonder Drug. Bloomsbury Publishing.
- ^ George King, The Last Empress: The Life and Times of Alexandra Feodorovna, Tsarina of Russia. Replica Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-7351-0104-3
- ^ Thomas Szasz, A Lexicon of Lunacy: Metaphoric Malady, Moral Responsibility, and Psychiatry. Transaction Publisher, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7658-0506-5.
- ^ Radzinsky, p. 40.
- ^ Radzinsky, p. 434.
- ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.197. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9.
- ^ Sulzberger, pp.271-273
- ^ Google Books
- ^ Rasputina and Barham (1977). Rasputin, the man behind the myth, a personal memoir. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 013753129X. "With the skill of a surgeon, these elegant young members of the nobility castrated Grigori Rasputin, flinging the severed penis across the room."
- ^ Another America article on Rasputin
- ^ Museum of Hoaxes article: "Rasputin's Penis: Hoax or not?"
- ^ Joseph L. Gardner (ed.), "The Unholy Monk", Reader's Digest Great Mysteries of the Past, 1991, p. 161.
- ^ Radzinsky and Rosengrant (2000). The Rasputin File. Nan Talese. p. 13. ISBN 0385489099.
- ^ Matrena Rasputina, Memoirs of The Daughter, Moscow 2001. ISBN 5-8159-0180-6 (Russian)
- ^ Gardner, p. 159.
- ^ Rasputin (par Boney M) - fiche chanson - B&M
- ^ Doollee.com
- ^ IMDb.com
- ^ "Do You Remember the Promise?". Blood+. February 4, 2006. No. 17, season 2.
- ^ This Is Theatre retrieved 23/2/10
- ^ "Old Rasputin Russian Imperial Stout". North Coast Brewing Company. http://www.northcoastbrewing.com/beer-rasputin.htm.
- Fuhrmann, Joseph T (1990). Rasputin: A Life (illustrated ed.). New York: Praeger. pp. 276. ISBN 027593215X. OCLC 19269485.
- Massie, Robert K (2004) [originally in New York : Atheneum Books, 1967]. Nicholas and Alexandra: An Intimate Account of the Last of the Romanovs and the Fall of Imperial Russia (Common Reader Classic Bestseller ed.). United States: Tess Press. pp. 672. ISBN 157912433X. OCLC 62357914.
- Radzinsky, Edvard (2000) [originally in London : Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000]. Rasputin: The Last Word. translator Judson Rosengrant. St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin. pp. 704. ISBN 1865085294. OCLC 155418190.
- King, Greg (1998) [Originally by Carol Pub. in 1995]. The Man Who Killed Rasputin: Prince Felix Youssoupov and the Murder That Helped Bring Down the Russian Empire (illustrated ed.). Secaucus, New Jersey: Citadel Press. ISBN 0806519711.
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- BBC's Rasputin murder reconstruction
- RASPUTIN Grigory Efimovich - article about Rasputin at Encyclopaedia of Saint Petersburg
- Mark 16:18 - a bible verse believed by some Christians to ascribe Rasputin-like powers to some Christians
- "Grigori Rasputin". Find a Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7304586.
|NAME||Rasputin, Grigori Yefimovich|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Mad Monk|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Russian mystic|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 22, 1869(1869-01-22)|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Pokrovskoye, Tyumen Oblast, Siberia, Russia|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 31, 1916|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Saint Petersburg|