miércoles, 14 de julio de 2010

Prahlad Jani




Inedia

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Inedia (Latin: "fasting") is the ability to live without food. The word was first used to describe a fast-based lifestyle within Catholic tradition, which holds that certain saints were able to survive for extended periods of time without food or drink other than the Eucharist.

Breatharianism is a related concept, in which believers claim food and possibly water are not necessary, and that humans can be sustained solely by prana (the vital life force in Hinduism), or according to some, by the energy in sunlight (according to Ayurveda, sunlight is one of the main sources of prana). The terms breatharianism or inedia may also refer to this philosophy practised as a lifestyle in place of the usual diet.

While there is not peer verified scientific support for the claims, some promote the practices of breatharianism as a skill which can be learned through specific techniques.[1]

Contents

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[edit] Scientific basis

Nutrition science indicates that fasting for extended periods leads to starvation, dehydration, and eventual death. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are the body's only observed sources of energy.[2][3][4] In the absence of calorie intake, the body normally burns its own reserves of glycogen, body fat, and muscle. Breatharians claim that their bodies do not consume these reserves while fasting.[5]

Few breatharians have submitted themselves to medical testing; of those that have, none have undergone peer review with results independently reproduced. In a handful of documented cases, individuals attempting breatharian fasting have died.[6][7] Other studies of alleged breatharians have exposed them as frauds.[8]

[edit] Practitioners

[edit] Jasmuheen

Jasmuheen (born Ellen Greve) was a prominent advocate of breatharianism in the 1990s. She claimed "I can go for months and months without having anything at all other than a cup of tea. My body runs on a different kind of nourishment."[citation needed] Interviewers found her house stocked with food; Jasmuheen claimed the food was for her husband. In 1999, she volunteered to be monitored closely by the Australian television program 60 Minutes for one week without eating to demonstrate her methods.[9][10] Jasmuheen stated that she failed on the first day of the test because the hotel room in which she was confined was located near a busy road, causing stress and pollution that prevented absorption of required nutrients from the air. "I asked for fresh air. Seventy percent of my nutrients come from fresh air. I couldn’t even breathe," she said. The third day the test was moved to a mountainside retreat. After fasting for four days, Dr. Berris Wink, president of the Queensland branch of the Australian Medical Association, urged her to stop the test.

According to Dr. Wink, Jasmuheen’s pupils were dilated, her speech was slow, and she was "quite dehydrated, probably over 10%, getting up to 11%". Towards the end of the test, she said, "Her pulse is about double what it was when she started. The risks if she goes any further are kidney failure. 60 Minutes would be culpable if they encouraged her to continue. She should stop now". The test was stopped. Dr. Wink said, "Unfortunately there are a few people who may believe what she says, and I'm sure it's only a few, but I think it's quite irresponsible for somebody to be trying to encourage others to do something that is so detrimental to their health".[11] Jasmuheen challenged the results of the program, saying, "Look, 6,000 people have done this around the world without any problem."[citation needed] Though she claims thousands of followers,[12][13] mostly in Germany,[14] there has been no verification that any have lived for extended periods without food.

Jasmuheen was awarded the Bent Spoon Award by Australian Skeptics in 2000 ("presented to the perpetrator of the most preposterous piece of paranormal or pseudoscientific piffle").[15] She also won the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize for Literature for Living on Light. Jasmuheen claims that their beliefs are based on the writings and "more recent channelled material" of the Count of St Germain.[16] She stated that her DNA has expanded from 2 to 12 strands, to "absorb more hydrogen". When offered $30,000 to prove her claim with a blood test, she said that she didn't understand the relevance.[17]

[edit] Deaths of Jasmuheen's followers

The deaths of 49-year-old Australian-born Scotland resident Verity Linn, 31-year-old Munich preschool teacher Timo Degen, and 53-year-old Melbourne resident Lani Marcia Roslyn Morris while attempting the breatharian "diet" advocated by Jasmuheen have elicited criticism.[6][7] Jim Vadim Pesnak, 63, and his wife Eugenia, 60, went to jail for six and two years on charges of manslaughter for their involvement in the death of Morris, when Pesnak delayed seeking medical attention.[18] Jasmuheen claimed that Linn's death was brought on by a psycho-spiritual, rather than physiologic, source.

Jasmuheen has denied any involvement with the three deaths and claims she cannot be held responsible for the actions of her followers. In reference to the death of Lani Morris, she said that perhaps Morris was "not coming from a place of integrity and did not have the right motivation".[7]

[edit] Wiley Brooks

Wiley Brooks is founder of the Breatharian Institute of America. He was first introduced to the public in 1980 when appearing on the TV show That's Incredible!.[19] Brooks stopped teaching recently to "devote 100% of his time on solving the problem as to why he needed to eat some type of food to keep his physical body alive and allow his light body to manifest completely."[20] Brooks believes to have found "four major deterrents" which prevented him from living without food: "people pollution", "food pollution", "air pollution" and "electro pollution".[20]

In 1983 he was allegedly observed leaving a Santa Cruz 7-Eleven with a Slurpee, hot dog and Twinkies.[21] He told Colors magazine in 2003 that he periodically breaks his fasting with a cheeseburger and a cola, explaining that when he's surrounded by junk culture and junk food, consuming them adds balance.[22]

On his website, Brooks states that his potential followers must first prepare by combining the junk food diet with the meditative incantation of five magic "fifth-dimensional" words which appear on his website.[23][24] In the "5D Q&A" section of his website Brooks explains that cows are fifth-dimensional (or higher) beings that help mankind achieve fifth-dimensional status by converting three-dimensional food to five-dimensional food (beef). The "Holy Cows" section of the site includes a picture of cows with glowing eyes so that readers can sense the energy of the picture.[25] In the "Question and Answer" section of his website, Brooks explains that the "Double Quarter-Pounder with Cheese" meal from McDonald's possesses a special "base frequency" and that he thus recommends it as occasional food for beginning breatharians.[26] He then goes on to reveal that Diet Coke is "liquid light".[26] Prospective disciples are asked after some time following the junk food/magic word preparation to revisit his website in order to test if they can feel the magic.[24]

Brooks states that he may be contacted on his fifth-dimensional phone in order to get the correct pronunciation of the five magic words.[24] In case the line is busy, prospective recruits are asked to meditate on the five magic words for a few minutes, and then try calling again;[24] he does not explain how anyone can meditate with words they cannot yet pronounce. Brooks's institute charged varying fees to prospective clients who wished to learn how to live without food, which ranged from US$15 million to US$25 million. A payment plan was also offered.[27] These charges had typically been presented as limited time offers exclusively for billionaires.[28][29] New lower fees have been set to US$100,000 with an initial deposit of US$10,000.[1]

[edit] Hira Ratan Manek

Hira Ratan Manek (born September 12, 1937) claims that since June 18, 1995, he has lived exclusively on water, and, occasionally, tea, coffee, and buttermilk. Manek states that sunlight is the key to his health, citing the Jainist Tirthankara Mahavira, ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Native Americans as his inspiration.

According to his website, three extended periods of his fasting have been observed under control of scientific and medical teams, the first lasting 211 days in 1995-96, in Calicut, India, under the direction of Dr C. K. Ramachandran. During that period he is reported to have lost 41 kg.[30]

The second study lasted 411 days in 2000-2001, in Ahmedabad, India, under the direction of a 21 member team of medical doctors and scientists led by doctors Sudhir Shah and K. K. Shah, a past President of the Indian Medical Association and current Chairman of the Jainist Doctors' Federation (the latter group aims to "Promote scientific research and medical education based on principles of Jainism").[31] Dr K. K. Shah said "Fasting is a method of curing the meditation of mind and body which has been proved by great jain monks, sanyasis and munis of ancient times. There is a need to propagate these methods during this age of increasing diseases of the body and mind due to over consumptions and increasing with fasting would help maintain perfection.".[30] Dr Sudhir Shah was also involved in the study of Prahlad Jani.[32]

The paper[33] published by Dr Sudhir Shah makes it clear that dozens of people had access to Hira Ratan Manek during the study and he went on at least one excursion: "Most surprisingly, he had himself climbed the famous Shatrunjay mountain (Palitana hill) on 4.4.01, on 401st day of his legendary fasting along with 500 fellowmen without anybody’s help, within 1.5 Hrs. only". The paper reports that the subject lost 19 kg of weight during the study period. Neither the experiment, as described in the paper, nor the paper itself have been validated by any other well-known scientific or medical journal.

A third study allegedly lasted for 130 days in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at Thomas Jefferson University and the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of Dr. Andrew Newberg and Dr. George C. Brainard. Dr Sudhir Shah, who led the previous study, acted as an advisor and consultant to the USA team. However, Dr. Andrew Newberg said that Hira stayed at the University of Pennsylvania only for brain scans on studies of meditation, not his ability to fast indefinitely. Following that statement, Newberg denied ever undertaking the 130-day study.[citation needed]

[edit] Prahlad Jani ("Mataji")

Prahlad Jani is a controversial Indian 81 year old sadhu who has claimed to have lived without food and water for the last 70 years. His ability to live without food and water was investigated during monitoring over a two-week period[34] by the doctors and researchers of Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Science (DIPAS), a branch of India's Defence Research and Development Organisation within the Indian Ministry of Defence. Dr. Ilavezhagen (director, DIPAS) said a conclusion on the survival mechanism would be drawn only after critically analyzing the reports of tests carried out during April 22-May 6, which may take up to several months. The researchers stated that, although people are known to survive longer than two weeks without food or water, they were surprised at the lack of urine or stool production.[34] Two extensive testing periods have been taken to examine the functioning of Prahlad Jani's physiology in 2003 and in 2010 in Sterling Hospital (NABH & NABL[35] accredited hospital and lab), Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The team of doctors from Ahmedabad from various specialties joined as co-investigators. Coordinating agencies including SRISTI,[36] the Gujarati government and other consulting doctors had been involved to assure the highest standard of scientific procedure[clarification needed].[37] In recent Press Release the investigators officially declared their intent to continue the scientific analysis after the tests based on the collected data for approximately 3 months.[38]

In 2010, a team of researchers kept Jani under round-the-clock surveillance for 15 days. The only condition Mr. Jani set for the team was not to carry out any “invasive” tests that would require him to consume water or any other fluid.[34] The team reported that he did not consume any food or water during this time, although they could not comment on his claim of having been able to survive in this way for several years.[37][39] The study concluded that Prahlad Jani lived healthily without either food or water, and had passed no urine or stool,[40] with no need for dialysis.[41]

Interviews with the involved doctors/researchers speak of strict observation routine and relate that round-the-clock observation was insured by multiple CCTV cameras and subject of tests was taken out for MRI, USG, and X-ray examination and exposure to sun under continuous video recording.[42] As per official press release, Jani's only contact with any form of fluid was during gargling and bathing beginning from 5th day of study.[37] The doctors measured the fluid that was spit out.[43]

The case has attracted criticism, both after 2003 tests and after the recent 2010 tests. Sanal Edamaruku, president of the Indian Rationalist Association, criticized the 2010 experiment for allowing Jani to move out of a certain CCTV camera's field of view, meet devotees and leave the sealed test room to sunbathe. Edamaruku felt that the regular gargling and bathing activities were not sufficiently monitored,[44] and accuses Jani of having had some "influential protectors" who denied Edamaruku permission to inspect the project during its operation.[44]

[edit] Religious traditions

[edit] Roman Catholicism

Roman Catholicism also has traditions of inedia, in which saints, as well as Jesus, are claimed to have been able to go for months or years without any food (or with no food but the Eucharist).[45] Such saints include:

[edit] Hinduism

Paramahansa Yogananda's Autobiography of a Yogi details two alleged historical examples of breatharianism, Giri Bala and Therese Neumann.

[edit] Shamanism

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b "Wiley Brooks website: Initiation workshops". Breatharian.com. http://www.breatharian.com/initiationworkshops.html. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  2. ^ "How to Eat Healthy. WebMD". Women.webmd.com. http://women.webmd.com/guide/nutrition-101-how-to-eat-healthy. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  3. ^ "Test Your Weight Loss Wisdom. MedicineNet". Medicinenet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=55692. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  4. ^ "Macronutrients: the Importance of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat". Mckinley.uiuc.edu. http://www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/handouts/macronutrients.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  5. ^ "What happens to your body as a breatharian? Howstuffworks". Recipes.howstuffworks.com. http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/breatharian1.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  6. ^ a b "UK: Scotland Woman 'starved herself to death'". BBC. 1999-09-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/453661.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  7. ^ a b c Tom Walker, Judith O'Reilly (1999-09-26). "Three deaths linked to 'living on air' cult". Sunday Times (London). http://www.rickross.com/reference/breat/breat08.html.
  8. ^ ""Indian Ministry of Defence and NASA taken in by village fraud."". "Rationalists International". http://www.rationalistinternational.net/article/20031201_en.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
  9. ^ "Living on air: Breatharian put to the test". Archived from the original on 2005-11-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20051102085047/http://sixtyminutes.ninemsn.com.au/60/stories/1999_10_24/story_57.asp.
  10. ^ "Jasmuheen". http://www.ratbags.com/rsoles/comment/jasmuheen.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  11. ^ "Fresh-air dietician fails TV show's challenge". http://www.rickross.com/reference/breat/breat13.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  12. ^ "Starvation guru given hostile reception". http://www.rickross.com/reference/breat/breat23.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  13. ^ "Mysticism". http://liberatapublishers.com/mysticism.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  14. ^ "Face behind food-free teaching". http://www.rickross.com/reference/breat/breat05.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  15. ^ "Bent Spoon 2000 - Winner (Jasmuheen)". http://www.skeptics.com.au/spoon/2000winners.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  16. ^ "All they need is the air". 1999-09-22. http://www.rickross.com/reference/breat/breat06.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  17. ^ "Correx Archives — Jasmuheen". http://www.abc.net.au/science/correx/archives/jasmuheen.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  18. ^ Sands, Judy (27 November 1999). "Prison for air cult disciples". Courier-Mail. http://www.rickross.com/reference/breat/breat18.html.
  19. ^ Broom, Jack (1993-10-05). "Living On Light, Air -- 'Breatharian' Says Food Is Poison But Pops An Occasional Twinkie". Seattle Times. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19931005&slug=1724507. Retrieved 2009-02-12.
  20. ^ a b "Wiley Brooks website through Internet Archive". Web.archive.org. 2006-02-11. Archived from the original on 2006-02-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20060211031744/http://www.breatharian.com/WileyBrooks-altinate.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  21. ^ "MetroActive News & Issues". http://www.metroactive.com/papers/cruz/01.05.00/nuzjunkies-0001.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  22. ^ "sonoma papers". Metroactive.com. http://www.metroactive.com/papers/sonoma/02.13.03/diets-0307.html. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  23. ^ Five magic words download (MS Word document)
  24. ^ a b c d "Wiley Brooks website: Five magic words". Breatharian.com. http://www.breatharian.com/fivemagicwords.html. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  25. ^ Q and A five magic words
    Holy cows section
    Picture of cows with glowing eyes
  26. ^ a b "5 magic words Q&A". Breatharian.com. http://www.breatharian.com/5wordsqa.html. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  27. ^ "Initiation workshops from the Internet Archive". Web.archive.org. 2008-02-13. Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080213070205/http://www.breatharian.com/initiationworkshops.html. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  28. ^ "Fees via Internet archive". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2006-07-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20060718084609/http://www.breatharian.com/WileyBrooks-altinate.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  29. ^ Initiation workshops through Internet Archive. Retrieved January 2008.
  30. ^ a b "Hira Ratan Manek". Archived from the original on 2005-03-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20050301181035/http://niejedzenie.info/english/hiraratanmanek.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  31. ^ "::: Aims &Amp; Objectives Of Jdf :::". http://www.jaindoctorsfederation.org/aimsandobjectives.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  32. ^ "Unexplained Mysteries, Unexplained Mystery, Unexplained Mysteries. Unexplained Mysteries". http://www.amazingabilities.com/amaze5a.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  33. ^ "Fasting, Prolonged Fasting, Fasting, Hira Manek Prolonged Fasting Medical Report". http://www.amazingabilities.com/amaze5c.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  34. ^ a b c Manas Dasgupta (2010-05-09). "The Hindu - DIPAS concludes observational study on ‘Mataji'". http://beta.thehindu.com/news/national/article425184.ece. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
  35. ^ http://www.nabl-india.org/ National Accreditation Board for testing and calibration Laboratories
  36. ^ http://www.sristi.org/cms/ Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technologies and Institutions
  37. ^ a b c http://sudhirneuro.org/files/press_release.pdf Press Release
  38. ^ http://sudhirneuro.org/files/press_release.pdf Press Release -- Clause 5
  39. ^ Experts baffled as Mataji's medical reports are normal
  40. ^ Rajeev Khanna (2003-11-25). "Fasting fakir flummoxes physicians". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3236118.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
  41. ^ Scientists Baffled by Prahlad Jani, Man Who Doesn't Eat or Drink
  42. ^ Experts baffled as Mataji's medical reports are normal http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_experts-baffled-as-mataji-s-medical-reports-are-normal_1380169
  43. ^ How a man can live seven decades without food or water http://www.helium.com/items/1830574-how-a-man-can-live-seven-decades-without-food-or-water
  44. ^ a b Edamaruku, Sanal (2010-05-18). "Prahlad Jani and his powerful protectors". Rationalistinternational.net. http://www.rationalistinternational.net/article/2010/20100518/en_1.html. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  45. ^ "Patron Saints Index: inedia". http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/define87.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.

[edit] External links

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